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Shobha Nagar, Jaipur-Delhi Highway (NH-11C), Jaipur- 303121 The scope of Optometry includes the detection of common eye diseases, the management of binocular vision problems such as squints and lazy eyes and the prescription of spectacles and contact lenses. The Bachelor degree in Optometry is a programme that aims to produce professionally competent optometrists serving as primary eye care health practitioners. NIMS University is one for the few premium institutions in India that offers a Bachelor degree in Optometry and Ophthalmic. Job Prospects : After the completion of BOOT, you will find challenging career opportunities with Optician shops, eye doctors, and Contact Lens companies, Ophthalmic lens industry and hospital eye departments. A technician can work for eye testing, Contact lenses, squint exercises, etc. You can start your own eye clinic, Optical shop, lens manufacturing unit. You can also get job opportunities with Optician shops and hospitals in India and abroad. Common job profiles of students after completing BOOT include: Optometry Technicians, Ophthalmic Assistants and Ophthalmic Nurses. BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
Continues
Course Code
Course Title
Assessment
Practical
(Internals)
PRACTICAL Basic Biochemistry, Pathology & PRACTICAL Ocular Anatomy & Physiology Continues
Course Code
Course Title
Assessment
Practical
(Internals)
PRACTICAL Physical & Geometric Optics BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
Continues
Course Code
Course Title
Assessment
Practical
(Internals)
PRACTICAL Optometric Instruments & Clinical PRACTICAL Contact Lens & Low Vision Aids Course Code
Course Title
Viva Voce
Practical
BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT

INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD:
Personal contact programmes, Lectures (virtual and in-person),
Assignments, Labs and Discussions, Learning projects, Industrial Training Programmes and Dissertation.
COMMUNICATION FOR PROFESSIONALS
CONTENTS
Parts of speech - (definition of all the sight parts along with examples and their use in language), definite and indefinite articles (a. an and the), definition and its uses along with examples and personal, reflexive, emphatic, demonstrative, relative, indefinite, interrogative and distributive pronouns, the noun (defining noun along with types and categories), gender, number case, the adjective, comparison, adjective used as nouns, positions of the adjective and its correct use of adjectives, the verb definition. its forms, verbs of incomplete predication, phrases (defining it along with examples), adjective, adverb and noun phrase and clauses (defining it along with examples), adverb, adjective and noun clauses, the sentence and its types, simple, compound and complex, subject and predicate (parts of a sentence), transformation of sentences, active and passive voice, mood and narration (direct and indirect speeches). Words and phrases - word formation (prefix, suffix), idioms, synonyms and antonyms, phonetics, speech sound, the phoneme, the syllable and IPA transcription. Business correspondence, paragraph writing, introductory remarks, principles, the writing of single paragraphs and precise writing, letter writing, quotations, orders and tenders, inviting and sending quotations, placing orders and inviting tenders. Notices, agenda and minutes, application letter, importance and function, drafting the application, elements structure, preparing cvs. Applied grammar - correct usage, the structure of sentences, the structure of paragraphs, Written composition, precise writing and summarizing, writing of bibliography, LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
A. English Grammar and Composition Wren and Martin. S. Chand & Company Ltd. B. Intermediate English Grammar; Raymond Murphy Pub: Foundation Books, New Delhi C. Eng. Grammar usage and Composition; Tickoo & Subramanian Pub: S. Chand and Co. D. Living Eng. Structure; Standard Alien. BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
CONTENTS
The human body - definitions, sub-divisions of anatomy, terms of location and position, fundamental planes, vertebrate structure of man, organization of the body cells, tissues. The Skeletal System - Types of bones, structure and growth of bones, Division of the skeleton, Appendicular skeleton, axial skeleton name of all the bones and their parts, Joints, classification, types of movements with examples. Anatomy of circulatory system - heart size, position coverings, chambers, blood supply, never supply, the blood vessels, general plan of circulation, pulmonary circulation, names of arteries and veins and their position, lymphatic system general plan. Anatomy of the respiratory system - organs of respiratory, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, respiratory portion, pleurae and lungs, brief knowledge of parts and position. Anatomy of the digestive system - components of digestive system, alimentary tube, anatomy of organs of digestive tube, mouth, tongue, tooth, salivary glands, liver, bleary apparatus, pancreas, names and position and brief functions. Anatomy of the nervous system - central nervous system, the brain, hind brain, midbrain, forebrain, brief structure, locations, and peripheral nervous system. spiral card, anatomy, functions, reflex - arc, ménages, injuries to spinal card and brain. Anatomy of the endocrine system - name of all endocrine glands their position, hormones, and their functions - pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, gonads & islets of pancreas. Anatomy of excretory system and reproductive system - kidneys - location, gross structure, excretory ducts, urethras, urinary bladder, urethra, male reproductive system, testis, duct system, female reproductive system, ovaries duct system, accessory organs. Physiology - blood, definitions, composition, properties and function of blood, haemogram (RBC, WBC, platelet count, hb concentrations), function of plasma proteins haemopoiesis, blood group - ABO and RH grouping, coagulation & anticoagulants, anemia causes effects & treatment, body fluid compartments, composition, immunity, lymphoid tissue, clotting factors, mechanism of blood clotting, disorders of white blood cells, disorders of platelets, disorders of clotting. Cardio vascular system - function of cardiovascular system, structure of cardiovascular system, cardiac cycle, functional tissue of heart & their function, cardiac output, E.C.G., blood pressure, heart rate. Respiratory system - function of respiratory system, functional (physiological), anatomy of respiratory system, mechanism of respiration, lung volumes & capacities, transport of respiratory gases. Digestive system - function of digestive system, functional anatomy of digestive system, composition and functions of all digestive juices, movements of digestive system (intestine), digestion & absorption of carbohydrate, proteins & fats. Nervous system - functions of nervous system, neuron - conduction of impulses, factors effecting, synapse - transmission, reception, reflexes, ascending tracts, descending tracts, functions of various parts of the Brain, cerebro spinal fluid (CSF), composition, functions & circulation, lumbar puncture, Autonomic nervous system - and its types function of (ANS). Special Senses, Vision - Structure of Eye, function of different parts Refractive errors of and correction, Visual pathways, color vision & tests for color blindness, Hearing, structure and function of ear, mechanism of hearing, test for hearing (deafness). BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
Muscle Nerve Physiology - Type of muscle, structure of skeletal muscle, Sarcomee, Neuromuscular junction & transmission, Excitation & contraction coupling (mechanism of contraction). Skin - Structure and function of skin, body temperature, fever, regulation of temperature. Excretory system - Excretory organs, kidneys, function, nephron, juxta glomerular apparatus, renal circulation, mechanism of urine formation, mechanism of mictirution, cystomatrogram, diuretics, artificial kidney. Reproduction System - Structure and function of reproductive system, Male reproductive Female reproductive system - Ovulation, menstrual cycle cogenesis, tests for ovulation, estrogen & progesterone, pregnancy test, parturition, contraceptive, Lactation, Composition of milk, advantages of breast feeding. LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
A. Text books of Physiology. Author: Guyton (Arthor C). Prism publishers Bangalore. B. Human Physiology. Author : Chaterjee (cc). Medical allied agency C. Concise Medical physiology. Author : Choudhary (Sujit km.). New central books Kolkata. D. Review Medical physiology. Author : Ganang. Application and Lange. BASIC BIOCHEMISTY, PATHOLOGY & MICROBIOLOGY
CONTENTS
Introduction to Apparatus - Chemical Balance, Different types, Principles and Practice, Concepts of Molecular weight, Atomic weight, Normality, Molarity, Standards, Atomic structure, Valence, Acids, Bases, Salts, & Indicators, Concepts of Acid Base reaction and hydrogen ion concentration. pH meter & pH buffer, Chemistry of Carbohydrates, Definition, Classification and biological importance, Monosaccharides, Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides & Polysaccharides: Classification and Properties. Chemistry of Lipids - Definition, Classification and biological importance, Simple lipids, Triacylglycerols and waxes-composition and functions, Compound lipids, Phospholipids, Sphingolipids & Glycolipid, composition and functions, Derived lipids, Fatty acids ― saturated & unsaturated, Steroids and their properties, Chemistry of Proteins, Classification and examples. Amino acids - Classification, properties, side chains of amino acids, charge properties, Protein Definitions, Classifications and functions, Peptides, Biologically active peptides ― Examples such as GSH, Insulin― its structure, Structural organization, conformation and denaturation, Chemistry of Nucleic acids― DNA Structure and function, RNA Types, Structure and function. Pathology Introduction - Blood collection, Anticoagulants used in Haematology, Normal values in Haematology, Basic Haematological Techniques, RBC count, Haemoglobin estimation, Packed cell volume, Calculation or absolute indices, WBC counts-Total and differential, Absolute eosinophil count, Platelet count , Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Reticulocyte count, Preparation of blood films, Stains used in Haematology, Morphology of BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
red cells, Morphology of Leukocytes and platelets, Bone marrow, Techniques of aspiration, preparation and staining of films. Bone marrow biopsy - Preparation of buffy coat smears, Laboratory methods used in the investigation of anaemias, B 12 and folate assay, Schilling test, Serum iron and iron binding capacity, Laboratory methods used in investigation of haemolytic anaemias, Osmotic fragility , Investigation of G-6 PD deficiency, Test for sickling, Estimation on ofHb-F, Hb-A2, Plasma haemoglobin and Haptoglobin, demonstration of hacmosiderin in urine, Haemoglobin electrophoresis, Test for auto immune hemolytic Anaemias, Measurements of abnormal Hb pigments 16. Clinical pathology - urine examination physical, chemical & microscopic, examination of body fluids, cell counts, semen analysis, csf (cerebro spinal fluid), stool examination. Morphology - Classification of micro organisms, size, shape and structure of bacteria, Use of microscope in the study of bacteria, Growth and nutrition, Nutrition, growth and multiplications of bacteria, use of culture media in, diagnostic Bacteriology, Sterilisation and Disinfection, Principles and use of equipments of sterlization namely Hot Air oven, Autoclave and serum Inspissrator. Pasteurization, Anti septic and disinfectants, Antimicrobial sensitivity test, Immunology, Immunity Vaccines, Types of Vaccine and immunization schedule, Principles and interpretation of commonly done serological tests namely, Widal, VDRL, ASLO, CRP, RF & ELISA. Rapid tests for HIV and HbsAg. Systematic Bacteriology - Morphology, cultivation, diseases caused, laboratory diagnosis including, Specimen collection of the following bacteria (the classification, antigenic, Structure and pathogenicity are not to be taught) Staphyloccci, Streptococci, Pneumococci, Gonococci, Menigococci, C diphtheriae, Mycobacteria, Clostridia, Bacillus, Shigella, Salmonella, Esch coli, Klebsiella, Proteus,vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas & Spirochetes, Parasitology. Morphology - life cycle, laboratory diagnosis of following parasites, E. histolytica, Plasmodium, Tape worms, Intestinal nematodes, Mycology, Morphology, diseases caused and lab diagnosis of following fungi, Candida, Cryptococcus, Dermatophytes, opportunistic fungi, Virology, General properties of viruses, diseases caused, lab diagnosis and prevention of following viruses, Herpes, Hepatitis, HIV, Rabies and Poliomyelitis, Hospital infection, Causative agents, transmission methods, investigation, Prevention and control Hospital infection, Principles and practice Biomedical waste management. Principles of Microbiology - Microscope-Different types including electron microscope, General introduction, and History of Microbiology, Classification of Microbes, Bacterial cell, Bacterial Growth and Nutrition, Bacterial Metabolism, Bacterial Genetics and Variation, Antibacterial Agents, and Anti-Septics & Disinfection (Chemical Sterilization), Sterilization (Physical) – Heat, Filters, Radiation, Antibiotics, Chemotherapy and Drug Resistance, Collection & Transportations of Specimens. LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
OCULAR ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
CONTENTS
Gross Anatomy And Embryology Of Eye- Introduction, Gross Anatomy of Eyeball and Orbit, General Anatomy of the Eyeball and Orbit, General Shape of the Eyeball, Layers of the Eyeball, General Concepts of the Structures Within the Eyeball, Embryology of Eyeball-Specific Embryological Stages of Eyeball, Embryology of Specific Ocular Structures Growth and Development of Eye. Anatomy Of The Outer Coat Of The Eyeball- introduction, Anatomy of Conjunctiva, Coat of Eyeball, Anatomy of Conjunctiva ,Anatomy of Cornea, Anatomy of Sclera Anatomy Of The Middle Coat of The Eyeball- Introduction, Anatomy of Uveal Tract, Anatomy of Iris, Anatomy of Ciliary Body, Anatomy of Choroid, Anatomy of Anterior and Posterior Chambers. Anatomy Of Lens- Introduction, Anatomy of Lens Anatomy Of The Inner Coat Of The Eyeball And Anatomy Of Vitreous-,Introduction, Anatomy of Retina and its Special Regions ', Anatomy of Retina ,Special Regions of the Retina, Anatomy of Vitreous. Anatomy Of Optic Nerve And The Visual Pathway- Introduction, Parts of Visual Pathways Optic' Nerve, Optic Chiasma, Optic Tract, Lateral Geniculate Nucleus, Optic Radiation, Visual Cortex, Arrangement of Fibres in Visual Pathway. Anatomy Of Lids And Lacrimail System- Introduction, Description of Eye Lids and Lacrimail System. Eyelids, Lacrimal Apparatus And Tear Film Dynamics- Introduction, Structure and Functions of the Eyelids ,Functions of the Eyelids, Physiology of Eyelid Movements,\Blinking and Peering, Functions of the Lacrimal Apparatus- Tear Secretion, Control of Tear Production, Tear Drainage, Tear Film Dynamics- Functions of Tear Film, Physical Properties of Tear Film, Tear Dynamics, Tear Film Dysfunction, Treatment of Dry Eye. Aqueous Humour And Intra Ocular Pressure- Introduction, Structure and Functions of Aqueous Humour, Formation of Aqueous Humour, Aqueous Movement and Outflow, Aqueous Composition, Physio-chemical Properlies of Aqueous, Intra-ocular Pressure, Diurnal Variation of intra-ocular Pressure, Measurement of Intra-ocular Pressure, Increase in Intra-ocular Pressure, Lowering Intra-ocular Pressure, Factors Affecting intra-ocular pressure. Pupil And Pupillary Reflexes- Introduction, Pupillary Reflexes, Pupil, Appearance of the Pupi1, Accommodation,Neuronal Pathways, Pupillary Defects, Marcus Gunn Pupil (RAPD) Argyll Robertson Pupil (ARP), Adie's (Tonic) Pupil, Homer's Pupil, Iris Coloboma. Muscles And Mpvements Of The Eye- Extra-ocular Muscles, Recti and Oblique Muscles Planes of Muscles, Intra-ocular Muscles, Uni-ocular Movements, Binocular Movements, Laws Governing Ocular Movements, Abnormalities of Gaze, Latent Squint (Anisophoria or Heterophoria), Manifest Squint (Heterotropia), Pseudosquint (Pseudo-false). Vision: Light Sense, Night Vision And Colour Vision- Introduction, Visual Iinpulse and Perception, Initiation of Visual Impulse, Transmission of Visual Sensation, Analysis of Visual Perception, Colour Vision, Young's Trichromatic Theory, Details of Colour Vision Defective Colour Vision, Light Sense, Adaptation, Dark Adaptation, Contrast Sense. Visual Pathway, Fields And Visual Cortex- Introduction, Retina, Optic Nerve, Optic BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
Chiasma, Optic Tract, Lateral Geniculate Body, Optic Radiations, Visual Cortex, Physiological Aspects, Visual Fields, Perimetry, Methods of Visual Field Examination. Visual Acuity, Uni-Ocular And Binocular Vision- Measurement of Visual Acuity, Test Types Snellen's and Landolt's, Binocular Vision, Advantages of Binocular Vision, Retinal Correspondence, Horopter (Horizon of Vision), Pannum's Area, Tests for Binocular Single Vision. Accommodation And Convergence- Introduction, Theories of' Accommodation, Electro-Physiology Of The Eye - Introduction, Electro-retinogram, Visual Evolced LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
OCULAR PHARMACOLOGY
CONTENTS
Routes of Administration- Routes of Drug Administration in Ophthalmology, Local Application, Systemic administration, Routes of Drug Administration in Common Ocular Inflammatory Conditions. Miotics, Mydriatics and Cyloplegics- Description of Drugs, Miotics, Mydriatics and Cycloplegics. Antiglaucoma Agents- Classification, Description of Different Antiglacucoma Drugs, Beta Blockers, Cholinergic Agents, Sympathomimetics, Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors, Alpha Adrenergic Agonists, Prostaglandins, Hyperosmotic Agents. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-allergic agents- Steroids Classification, Mechanizing of Action, Routes of Drug Administration, Indications, Formulations, Complications, Non- Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Classification, Mechanisiil of Action, Routes of Drug Indications of NSAlDs ill Ophthalmology, Formulations, Complications, Ocular Anti-allergic Agents, Classification, Description of Anti-allergic Agents. Antibiotics, Antifungal and Antiviral Agents Used in Ophthalmology- Antibacterial Agents, Antifungal Agents, Antiviral Agents. Ophthalmic Dyes, Irrigative Solutions, Artificial Tears and Viscoelastics- Ophthalmic Dyes, Fluorescein Sodium, Rose Begal, Lissamine Green, Indocyanine Green, Trypan Blue, Vertiporin (Visudyne) Irrigating Solutions, Balanced Sald Solutions (BSS) Balances Salt Solution Plus (BSS Plus), Normal Saline (0.9 Per cent NaCl) Plasma Lyte 148, Lacted Ringer’s Solutions, S-MA2, Dextran Containing Irrigation Solutions (DIS), Glucose Fortified BSS Plus), Artifical Tears/Ocular Lubricants, Viscoelastics and Other Surgical Adjuncts, Sodium Hyaluronate, Chondroitin Sulphate, Sodium Hyaluronate and Chondoitin Sulphate, Hydroxyporpyl Methylcellulose, Chelating Agents, Immunosuppressives, Antiseptics and Disinfectants and Enzymes – Chelating Agents, Ethylence Diamine Tetra Acetate (EDTA), Desferrioxamine, British Anti-Levisite (BAL), Pemicillamine, Alpha Cysteine, Immunosuppressive, Azathioprine, BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
Mercaptopurine, Methotrexate, Mechlorethamine, Chalormabucil, Cyclophosphamide, Treethylene Thiophosphoramide, Mycophenolate Mofetil, Cyclosporine, Antiseptics and Disinfectants, Batadine (Providone-Iodine 0.5 per cent w/v), Chlorocresol, Certimide, Cresol, Ultra-Violet Light, Ethylene Oxide, Ethanol, Fromaldehyde, Glutaraldehyde, Benzalkonium, Phenol (Carboilc Acid), Acetone, Enzymes, Aplha Chymotrypsin, Urokinase, hyaluronidase. LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
HOSPITAL TRAINING (FOR 45 DAYS) AFTER FINAL
EXAMINATION
FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE
CONTENTS
Computer application - characteristic of computers, input, output, storage units, CPU, Computers organization - Central Processing Unit, control unit, arithmetic unit, instruction Memory - main memory, storage evaluation criteria, memory organization, memory capacity, random access memories, read only memory, secondary storage devices, magnetic disk, floppy and hard disk, optical disks CD-ROM, mass storages devices. Input devices - keyboard, mouse, trackball, joystick, scanner, optical mark reader, bar-code reader, magnetic ink character reader, digitizer, card reader, voice recognition, web cam, video cameras. Output devices - monitors, printers, dot matrix printers, inkjet printers, laser printers, plotters, computers output micro files (com), multimedia projector. Operating System - Microsoft Windows, An overview of different version of windows, Basic windows elements, File managements through windows, Using essential accessories, system tools, Disk cleanup, Disk defragmenter, Entertainments, Games, Calculator, Imagine-Fax, Notepad, paint, Word Pad, Recycle bin, windows Explorer, Creating folders icons. Word Processing - Word processing concepts, Saving, closing opening and existing documents, Selecting text, edition text, Finding and replacing text, Printing documents, Creating and printing merged documents, Mail merge, Character and paragraph formatting, page designs and layout, Editing and proofing tools checking and correcting spelling, BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
Handling graphics, Creating tables and charts, Documents templates and wizards. Presentation Package - Creating opening and saving presentations, Creating the look of your presentation, Working in different views working with slides, Adding and formatting text, formatting paragraphs, Checking spelling and correcting typing mistakes, Making notes pages and handouts, Drawing and working with objectives, Adding clip art and other pictures, Designing slides shows, Running and controlling a slid show, Printing Presentations. Use of Internet and Email, Internet, Websites (Internet Sites), The Mail protocol suite. Hospital Management system - Types and Uses, Hospital Management & System Package, Advanced Hospital Management System, X O Hospital Management System, LCS Hospital Management Information System, NVISH Hospital Management System, CSPM-Hospital Management System. LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
A. Foundations of computing first edition, 2002 : P.K. Sinha and P. Sinha. B. Reading 2- Microsoft office 2000 for window, second Indian Print, person education:S. PHYSICAL & GEOMETRIC OPTICS
CONTENTS
Properties Of Light- Properties of Light, Propagation of Light ,Types of Waves Measurable Parameters of Waves, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Photobiology, Photon Ray, Law of Inverse Squares, Formation of Image. Interference, Huygens' Principle Uses of Interference, Laser Interferometer, Polarization, Clinical Applications of Polarization. Laws of Reflection, Reflection through Plane Mirrors .Reflection through Spherical Mirrors , General Aspects of Reflection ,Sign Convention of Rays ,Position of Image Images in Concave Mirrors ,Images in Convex Mirrors ,Refraction of Light ,Factors Affecting the Bending of Light ,General Aspects of Refraction, Laws of Refraction Refractive Index , Critical Angle ,Total Internal Reflection, Refraction through Various Surfaces , Refraction through Glass Plate , Refraction at Curved Surfaces ,Refraction through Prisms, Polychromatic Effects ,Nomenclature of Prisms ,Rotating Prisms, Uses of Prisms Lenses ,Types of Lenses, Formation of Convex Lenses, Formation of Concave Lenses, Geometrical Construction of Images, Principal Axis or Optical Axis, Focal Length, Dioptre , Determination of Optical Centre of the Lens, Image Formed by Various Lenses, Image Formation by Convex Lenses , Image Formation by Concave Lenses , Size and Position of Image , Cylindricsl Lenses, Convex Cylinder ,Concave Cylinder ,Sturm’s Conoid , Combination of Lenses ,Gauss Theorem, Combination of Cylindrical Lenses. Visual Angle, Visual Acuity , Components of Visual Acuity ,Factors Affecting Visual Acuity , Components Visual Acuity , Test Qpes Used in Adults ,Test Qpes Used in Children Objective Assessment of Vision, Assessment of Near Vision. Visual Axes, Angles, Vertex Povergence- Axes of the Eye, Optical Axis , Visual Axis, BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
Fixation Axis , Visual Angles, Angle Alpha, Angle Gamma, Angle Kappa, The Dioptric Notation of Lenses (Vergence) , The Advantages of the Dioptric Notation Vergence The Notation of' Cylinders, The Detection Measurement of Lenses, Optical Systems, Refraction by Combination of Lenses, Compound Homocentric Systems, Thick Lenses. Optical Aberrations- Optical Aberrations of Lenses, Aberrations Depending Upon the Light, Monochromatic Aberrations, Optical Aberrations of the Eye, Aberrations Depending Upon the Light, Anomalies as a Dioptric Apparatus. LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
OCULAR DISEASES
CONTENTS
Eyelid anatomy, congenital and developmental anomalies, blepharospasm, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis and symblepharon, eyelid inflammations, eyelid tumors, ptosis, eyelid retraction, eyelid trauma , lacrimal system, lacrimal anatomy, lacrimal pump, methods of lacrimal evaluation, congenital and development anomalies of the lacrimal system, lacrimal obstruction, lacrima lsac tumors, lacrimal trauma. Disease of eyelids, disease of orbit, diseases of adnexa, disease of conjunctiva, diseases of cornea, disease of sclera, disease of uvea, disease of lens, glaucoma, disease of retina, injuries of eye, optic nerve, sclera episclera, ectasis and staphyloma, scleritis and episcleitis, orbit, orbital anatomy, incidence of orbital abnormalities, methods of orbital examination, congenital and development anomalies of the orbit, orbital tumors, orbital inflammation, sinus disorders affecting the orbit, orbital trauma. Conjuctiva and corenea, inflammation, therapeutic principles, specific inflammatory diseases, tumors, tumor of epithelial origin, glandular and adenexa tumors, tumors of neuroectodermal origin, vascular tumors, x anthomatous origin, inflammatory tomors, metastatic lesions, degeneration and dystrophies, definition, degeneration’s , dystrophies, miscellaneous conditions, keratoconjunctivities sicca (k-sicca), tear function tests, steven johnson syndrome, ocular rosacea, a topic eye disorders, benign mucosal pemphigoid (bmp) ocular pemhigold, vitamin a deficiency, Metabolic diseases associated with corneal changes. Iris ciliary body and pupil, congenital anomalies, primary and secondary diseases of the iris and ciliary body, tumors, anomalies of papillary reaction, choroid, congenital anomalies of the choroid, diseases of the choroid, tumors. Vitreous, developmental abnormalities, hereditary hyaloidoretinopathies, juvenile retinoschisis, asteroid hyalosis, cholestrolosis, vitreous hemorrhage, blunt trauma and vitreous, inflammation and vitreous, parasitic infestations, pigment granules in the vitreous, vitreous complication sin cataract surgery. Retina, Retinal vascular anomalies, Disease of the choroidal vasculature Bruch’s membrane and retina pigment epithelium (RPE), Retinal tumors and retinoblastoma, Other retinal disorders, Retinal inflammations, Metabolic diseases affecting the retina, Miscellaneous disorders, Electromagnetic radiation effects on the retina, Retinal physiology and BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
psychophysics, Hereditary macular disorders (including albinism), Peripheral retinal degeneration, Retinal holes and detachments, Intraocular foreign bodies, Photocoagulation. Neuro ophthalmology history & visual functions test, technique of papillary examination, ocular motility, checklist for testing, visual sensory system, the retina optic disc, optic nerve optic chiasma optic tracts, the lateral gesticulate body optic radiations visual cortex, the visual field, disorders of visual system, ocular motor system, supranuclear control of eye movements, saccadic system, clinical disorders of the saccadic system, gaze palsies, parkinson’s disease, smooth pursuit system and disorders, non visual reflex system, position maintenance system, nystagmus, ocular motor nerves and medical longitudinal fasciculus, the facial nerve, pain and sensation from the eye, autonomic nervous system, selected system disorders with neuro ophthalmologic signs. Anatomy and path physiology, Normal anatomy and aging process, Developmental defects, Anterior segment trauma, Posterior segment trauma. Blindness definitions, Causes, Social implications, Rationale therapy, Drug induced ocular LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
DISPENSING OPTICS
CONTENTS
Lens-Form and Analysis- Spherical Lenses, Standard Lens Form, Astigmatic Lense, Cylindrical Lenses, Toric Lense, Base Curve. Writing Prescription and Transposition- Writing Prescription, Simple Transposition, Simple Transposition, Rule of Simple Transpotion, Toric Transposition, Steps of Toric Transpotion. Power Specification and Measurement- Lens Power, Power Specification, Surface Power, Approximate Power, Vertex power, Effective Power, Power Measurement, Hand Neutralization, Lensometer, Geneva Lens Measure. Optical Prisms-Uses and Decentration- Terminology, Properties of Prisms, Units for Specifying Power of Prism, Effect of Prism on movement of Eye, Prentice Rule, Use of Prism in Spectacle, Other Type of Prisms, Risly Prism, Slab Off prism, Fresnel Press on Prism. Ophthalmic Raw Materials and Manufacturing- Glass lens Materials, Manufacturing of Glass, Plastic Lens Materials, Manufacturing of Plastic Lense, Impact Resistance Lense, Heat Tempering process, Chemical Tempering Lense. Lens Surfacing and Glazing- Surfacing, Step of Lens Surfacing, Glazing, Laying off, Lens Lens Quality and Inspection- Faults, Defects Occurring during Manufacturing Process, Surface Faults, Errors in Power of Lens. Frame Nomenclature and Materials-Frame Parts, Frame front, Frame Temples, Bridge Area, Plastic Bridge, Saddle Bridge, Modified Saddle, End Piece Construction, Plastic end Piece BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
Construction, Metal and piece Construction, Temple Construction. Frame Measurement and Markings- Objective, Introduction, Datum System, Boxing System, Temple Length, Frame marking Conventions, Minimum Lens Size. Frame Selection Cosmetic Dispensing- Frame Shape and Face Shape, Facial Types, Affecting Facial balance, Frame Lines, Frame Colour and Hair Colour, Facial Features, Frame Thickness, Fitting Consideration, The Bridge, The Significant Angles for Fitting, Adjustable Pads, Frame Selection for the Purposes, Selecting Frames for Progressive Lens Wearer, Selecting Frames for High Minus Lenses, Selecting Frames for High (+) Lense, Selecting Frames Children, Selecting Frames for Older Wearer’s Selecting Frame for Safety Eyewer, Special Purpose Frames-Special Purpose Frame, Sports Spectacles. Bifocal and Trifocal Lenses-Bifocals, History of Bifocals, Terminology of Bifocals, Type of Bifocals, Fuses Bifocals, One-Piece Bifocals, Cement Lense, Fitting and Dispensing Bifocals, Fitting Height, Ordering Bifocals, Instruction for the Patient, Limitation of Bifocal Lense, Trifocal Lense, Types of Lenses. Progressive Additional Lense- Progressive Addition Lenses, Advantage of Progressive Lenses, Disadvantages of Progressive Lenses, Optical Properties, Hard and Soft Design, Mono Design and Multi Design, Asymmetrical and Symmetrical Designs, Indications and Contra-Indications, Indications of Progressive Lense, Contraindications for Progress Lens, Frame Selection, Pre-adjust frames, Measurement fitting Height, Measure Monocular PD, Verify Cut Out, Instruction for Progressive user, Trouble Shooting for PALS, Progressive Lenses Available in the Market. Absorptive and Protective Lenses-Electro Magnetic Specturm, Tinted Lenses, Antireflection Coatings, Antilog Coting, Scratch Resistant Coating, Mirror Coating, Photochromatics, Glass Photochromatics, Plastics Photochromatics, Polarizing Lense, Principle of Polarizing lens, Use of Polarizing Lenses. Aspheric, High Index and Specials Lenses-Aspheric Lenses, Principles of Aspheric Lens, Advantage of Aspheric Design, Fitting Guidelines for Aspherics, High Index Lenses, Advantage of High Index Lenses, Disadvantage of High Index Lenses, Lenticular Lenses, Lenticular Plus Design, Lenticular Minus Design. Interpupillary Distance- Interpupillary Distance, Distance PD, Monocular PD, Pupillometer, Near PD. Ordering and Verification- Ordering Lenses, Single Vision Lenses, Bifocals, Progressive Lense, Frame Specifications, Lens Material, Tints and Coating, Order Form, Lens Verification. LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
HOSPITAL PROCEDURES
CONTENTS
Definition and Classification of Hospitals- Definition of Hospital, Classification of BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
Hospitals, According to Directory of Hospitals, According to Ownership and Control, According to the Systems of Medicine, According to the Bed Strength, According to Clinical Basis, According to Length of Stay of Patients, Hospital as System, Function of Hospitals, Hospital Organogram, Role of Hospital in Primary Health Care. Hospital Organization- Hospital as an Organization, How a Hospital Work? Organization, Professional Service Department in Hospital Organization, Special Features of an Eye Hospital, Role of Hospital, Staffing. Role of a Hospital- Role of Hospitals, Functions of Hospitals, to take care of sick and Injured, to take preventive care and Health Promotion of Community, Surveillance Centre, Continuing Car of Patients, Rehabilitation, Education and Training of Staff, Research, Role of Hospital and Peculiarities, Hospital as a System, Hospital as Community institution, Changing Role of Hospitals, Challenges and Strategies, The problem, Land Mark of Efficiency of Hospital. Public Relation and Image of Hospital- Concept of Public in Hospitals, Public Relation Department, Patient’s Expectation and Satisfaction, Conflicts. Outpatients Service sand accident and Emergency Services- Outpatient Department, Role and Functions, Types, Planning Considerations of OPD, Physical Facilities and Layout, Equipment, Staffing, Accident and Emergency Department, Definitions, Development and Scope, Functions, Type of Emergency Services, Importance, Planning Consideration for Accident and Emergency Department, Locations, Space Requirement and Patient Wards, Physical Facilities and Layout, Architectural Design, Communication, Equipment of Requirements of Accident and Emergency Department, Staffing Consideration. Operation Theater and Indoor Patient, Department- Types of Operation Theaters, Design Considerations for OT, Location, Size of the Operating Room, Zoning, Equipment, Staffing, Policy and Procedures for OT, Operating Schedule, Administration of OT, Punctuality, Theater Staff, Operating List, Outpatient Cases, Transportation of Patients, Maintenance of OT and Aseptic Standard, Functions of Indoor Patient Department, Planning and Organizing Inpatient Unit, Policy of the Hospital, Physical Facilities, Staffing. Policy, Procedure, Management, Monitoring and Evaluation, Factors Influencing Impatient Care. LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
HOSPITAL TRAINING (FOR 45 DAYS) AFTER FINAL
EXAMINATION
BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
VISUAL OPTICS
CONTENTS
Myopia- Emmetropization, Myopia, Etiology of Myopia, Classification of Myopia, By Clinical Appearance, On the Basis of Degree, On the Basis of age of Onset, Clinical Features of Myopia, Visual Acuity and Magnitude of Myopia, Signs and Symptoms of Myopia, Degenerative Myopia, Correction of Myopia, Prescription Guidelines. Hypermetropia- Classification of Hypermetropia, On the Basis of Etiology, By Clinical Appearance, By Degree of hypermetropia, By Accommodative Status, Clinical Feature Hypermetropia, Management of Hypermetropia, Aphakia, Cause of Aphakia, Sign and Symptoms of Aphakia, Optics of Aphaka, Refraction. Correction Options for Aphakia. Astigmatism- Astigmatism, Causes of Astigmatism, Signs and Symptoms of Astigmatism, Diagnosis of Astigmatism, Classification of Astigmatism, Type of Astigmatism, Classification According to Focus, Treatment of Astigmatism, Prescription Guidelinmes. Presbyopia- Presbyopia, Cause of Presbyopia, Prebyopia and Different Refractive Condition, Reading Addition, Different Types of Presbyopic Correction, Reading Glasses, Bifocals, Progressive Addition Lenses, Monovision. Anisometropia and Aniseiknia- Anisometropia, Classification of Anisometropia, Sign and Symptoms of Anisometropa, Management of Anisometropia, Aniseikonia, Etiology, Classificiaon, Features of Aniseikonia, Clinical Measurement of Aniseiknonia, Knapp’s law. Spectacle Magnification, Relative Spectacle Magnification. Visual acuity- Factors Affecting Visual Acuity, Components of Visual Acuity, Log Mar Charts, Clinical Testing of Visual Acuity, Chart Illumination, Testing Distance, Testing Procedures, Clinical Significance of Visual Acuity Assessment, Pediatrics Visual Acuity Testing, Preschool Children, Visual Acuity Testing for Infants and Toddlers, Near Visual Acuity. Contrast Sensitivity and Glare Testing- Contrast, Contrast Sensitity Tests, Arden Plates, Vistech Charts, Cambridge Low Contast Grating Test, Pelli Robson Letter Chart, Regan’s Law Contrast Acuity Chart, Clinical Significance of Testing Contrast, Glare, Disability Glare, Discomfort Glare, Reflected Glare, Management of Glare. Color Vision- Color Vision Defect, Color Vision Testing, Pseudo Isochromatic Plate Tests, Arrangement Tests, Anomaloscopes, Management of Patients with color defects. Accommodation- Range and Amplitude of Accommodation, Amplitude of Accommodation, Methods of Measurement, Relative Accommodation. Convergence- Measurement of Convergence, Range and Amplitude of Convergence, Measurement of Convergence, Components of Convergence, Relative Convergence, Accommodative Convergence/Accommodation Ratio, Clinical Measurement of AC/A Ratio. Anomalies of Accommodation, Insufficiencies of Accommodation, Presbyopia, Cyclopedia, III-Sustained Accommodation, Inertia of Accommodation, Paralysis of Accommodation, Spasm of Accommodation, Anomalies of Convergence, Convergence Insufficiency, Convergence Excess. Objective Refraction- Instrumentation and use, Change of Bean, Types of Retinoscpy, Methodology, Difficulty Situation of Retinoscopy, Auto Refraction, Auto Refractors Based on Scheimner’s Principles, Autorefreactors based on optometric principles, Clinical Use of Automated Refractors. BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
Subjective Refraction- Best vision sphere, Fogging, Duochrome Test, Sphero Cylindrical Refraction, Jackson’s Cross Cylinder, Stenopaic Slit, Equivlent Sphere, Binocular Balancing, Prism Dissociation, Alternate Occlusion. LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
ORTHOPTICS
CONTENTS
Binocular Single Vision and Space Perception- Definition and concept, Grades of BSV, Grade I- Simultaneous Macular Perception, Grade II- Fusion, Grade III- Stereopsis, Mechanism of BSV, Development and Advantage of BSV, Anomalies of BSV, Diplopia, Confusion, Suppression, Abnormal Retinal Correspondence. Physiology of Ocular Movement- Axis of Fick, Ocular Movement, Positions of Gaze, Ocular Movement, Uniocular, Laws of Ocular Motility. Classification and Evaluation of Squint- Classification of Squint, History Taking in Patients with Squint, General and Ophthalmic Examination in a Patient with Squint, Visual Acuity Assessment, Fundus Examination, General Appearance, Head Posture, Measurement of Ocular Diviation, Detection of Squit, Estimation of Angle of Squint, Measurement of Deviation, Examination of Ocular Movements, Orthoptic Instruments, Measurement of Ac/A Ratio, Background, Methods of Measurement. Amblyopia, Amblyopia, Definition, Classification, Characteristics, Investigations of Amblyopia, Treatment of Amblyopia. Heterophorias- Classification, Decomposition of Heterophoria, Symptoms of Heterophorias, Investigations of Heterophoria, Management. Tropias- Background Information and Classification, Accommodative Esotropia, Non-Accommodative Esotropia, Secondary Esotropia, Exotropia, Background Information and Classification, Primary Extropia, Sensory Extropia, Consecutive Extropia Vertical Squint- What is Vertical Squint?, Classification, Types, Clinical Features, Clinical Examination and Investigations, Alternative Sursumduction or Dissociated Vertical Divergence, A-V- Pattern, Brown Syndrome, Double Elevator Palsy, congential Fibrosis Syndrome, Mobious Syndrome, Neruogenci Causes of Strabismus, Oculomotor (Third Nerve) Palsy, Fourth (Trochler) Nerve Palsy. Paralytic Squint- What is Paralytic Squint? Classification of Paralytic Squint, Etiology, Congenital, Acquired, Differences Between Congenital and Acquired Ocular Muscle Palsy, Clinical Characteristics, Stages of Paralytic Squint, Chief Diagnostic Features of Extrinsic Ocular Muscles Palsies, Types of Ocular Palsies, Total Ophthalmoplegia, External Ophthalmoplegia, Oculomotor/3rd Nerve Palsy :MR, SR, IR, IO Palsy, Trochlear or 4th Nerve Palsy, Abducen/5th Nerve Palsy, pathological Sequelae of Extrinsic Ocular Muscle Palsy, Differences between Ordinary Non-Ocular Torricelli’s and Ocular Torricelli’s, Differences between paralytic squint, History, Examination of the Positions of the Eye and BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
Head, Visual Acuity, Refraction, Ophthalmoscopy, Cover Test, Past Pointing : Malprojection, Ocular Movement, Worth’s Four Dot Test, Synaptophore (Amblyoscope) Krimsky Test, Diplopia Chart, Hess Screen Examination, Less Screen, Field of Binocular Function, Restrictive Squint, Management, Medical Management, Surgical Management. Special Forms of Strabismus- Special Forms of Strabismus, Duane Retraction Syndrome (DRS), Brown Syndrome, Monocular Elevation Deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy) Congenial Fibrosis Syndrome, Strabismus After Ocular Surgery (Cataract, Glaucoma, Retinal Detachment) Strabismus Fixus, Strabismus in the Craniofacial Syndromes. Nystagmus- Nystagmus, Domination, Classification, Etiology, Features, Types, Refractive Therapy in the Management of Strabismus-The Process of Mmetropization, Methods of Refraction, Refraction and Strabismus, Refractive Errors and Binocular Single vision, Dispensing Spectacles in Ocular Motility Disorders, Prisms in Ocular Motility Disorders. Non-Surgical Management of Strabismus- Treatment of Amblyopia, Optical Management, Spherical Lenses, Prisms, Orthoptic Treatment, Anti-suppression Exercises, Exercises for Increasing Flexibility of Accommodation and Convergence, Pharmacological Treatment, Miotics, Chemo-denervation by Botulinum toxin A. Surgical Management of Strabismus-Aims and Principle of Surgery, Anatomical Considerations, Pre-Operative Evaluation and Assessment, Preparation for Surgery, Guidelines and Surgical Techniques for Strabismus Surgery, Complications of Squint Surgery, Post-Operative Care. LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
OPTOMERTIC INSTRUMENT & CLINICAL EXAMINATION OF
CONTENTS
Refractive Instruments- Test charts standards, choice of test charts, Trail case lenses-Best form lenses, Reractor head units, optical considerations of refractor units, Trial frame design Near vision difficulties with units and trial frame, Retinoscope-types available, Adjustments of retionscopes – special features, Cylinder retinoscopy, Interpretation of objective findings, Interpretation of objective tests-polarising and displacement etc, simultan test, Projection charts, Illumination of the consulting room special instruments, Brightness acuity tester, Vision analyzer, Video acuity test, Pupilometer, Lnsometer, lens gauge or clock, Refractionometer, keratometer and corneal topography Other Instruments- Slit lamp, Tonometer – Princioles, uses and types, Ophthalmoscopes and Special Equipments- Fundus camera, Orthoptic instruments, Colour vision testing devices Fields of vision and screening devices, Opthalmic ultra sonography - ultrasound/ A scan/ Bscan/ UBM., Electodiagnostics - ERG/VPG/EOG, Nervefiber analyzer, Scanning laser devices. BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
clinical examination of the visual system - History of the ophthalmic subject, Ocular symptoms, the past prescriptions-it’s influence, Visual acuity testing-distance and near and colour vision, Examination of muscle balance, Examination of eye lids, conjunctiva & sclera, Examination of cornea, lens, Examination of iris, ciliary body and pupil. Special Examinations- Examination of intraocular pressure & Examination of angle of anterior chamber, Ophthalmoscopy – (direct and indirect), Examination of fundus, Examination of lacrimal system, Examination of orbit, Macular function test, Visual. Field charting – (central andperiphers), Neuro-opthalmological examination. LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
CONTACT LENS & LOW VISION AIDS
CONTENTS
History Of Contact Lens- Corneal anatomy and physiology, Corneal physiology and contact lens, Preliminary measurements and investigations, Slit lamp biomircoscopy, Contact Lens Materials, Optics of Contact Lens, Glossary of terms: Contact Lenses Indications and Contraindications of CL- RGP contact lens design, Soft contact lens design, Keratometry, Placido’s disc, Topography Fitting Philosophies [Introduction To CL Fitting]- handling of CL fitting of spherical soft CL and effects of parameter changes, astigmatism: correction options, fitting spherical RGP CL, low DK and high DK, 5effects of RGP CL parameter changes on lens fitting, fitting in astigmatism, fitting in keratoconus, fitting in aphakia , pseudophakia, lens care and hygiene instructions compliance, follow op post fitting examination, follow up slit lamp examination, cosmetic CL, fitting CL in children IC CL- Bifocal CL, Continuous wear and extended wear CL, 3Therapeutic CL/Bandage lenses, CL following ocular surgeries, Disposable CL, Frequent replacement lenses, Use of secular microscopy and pachymetry in CL, Care of CL, CL solutions, Complications of CL, CL modification of finished lenses, Instrumentation in CL practice, Checking finished lens parameters, CL-special purpose-swimming, sports, occupational etc., Recent developments in CL, Review of lenses available in India, Current CL research. Dispensing Poptics- Curvature and power measurements of typical contact lenses, Ediging and polishing curves of contact lenses, Visit to factors making lenses and contact lenses Identifying The Low Vision Patients- History, Diagnostic procedures in low vision case management. Optics Of Low Vision Aids- Refraction, special charts, radical radioscopy, Evaluating near vision-amsler grid and field defects, prismatic scanning, Demonstrating aids-optical, non optical, electronic. Teaching the patient to use aids including eccentric Viewing training where necessary- Spectacle mounted telescopes and microscopes, Guidelines to determine magnification and selecting low vision aids for, Distance, intermediate and near. Children With Low Vision- Choice of tests, Aids in different pathological conditions, Light, glare and contract in low vision care and rehabilitation, Bioptic telescope Optical Devices To Help People With Field Defects- Contact lens combined system, Rehabilitation of the visually handicapped. BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
PUBLIC HEALTH & COMMUNITY OPHTHALMOLOGY
CONTENTS
Concepts In Community Health- Natural History of Disease, Interaction of Agent, Host and Environmental Factors, Spectrum of Disease, Determinants of Health, Levels of Prevention, Primary Prevention, Secondary Prevention, Tertiary Prevention, Indicators of Health, Mortality Indicators, Morbidity indicators, Disability Indicators, Nutritional Status ,Indicators, Utilisation Rates Indicators Indicators of social and Mental Health, Environmental Indicators, Socio-economic Indicators, Health Care Delivery Indicators, HFA Indicators, Indices, Epidemiological Surveillance, Definition of Surveillance, Purpose/ Use of Survellance, Methods of Surveillance, Epidemiological Surveillance System, Limitations of Surveillance of Surveillance. Health for all and Primary Health Care- Concept, Scope and Vision of HFA, Primary Health Care and Components, Principles of Primary Health Care, New Course of Action for Health, Implications of the Primary Health Care Approach, Distribution of Primary Health Care Centres, Role of Hospitals in Primary Health Care, Hospitals versus Primary Health Care: A False Antithesis, The Need for Hospital Involvement, Role and Functions of the Hospital at the First Referral Level, Issues in Role of Hospital in Primary Health Care 14.6 Health for All in the Twenty-first Century, Targets, Primary Health Care Infrastructure. Basics Of Epidemiology And Biostatistics- Concept of Epidemiology, Important Epidemiological principles and Concepts, Natural History of Disease, Epidemiological Triad, Levels of Prevention/Intervention, Risk Approach in Health Care, Measurement, Epidemiological Methods, Descriptive Epidemiological Studies, Analytical Epidemiological Studies, Epidemic Management, Patterns of Epidemics, Epidemic Forecasting and Management, Screening, Biostatistics, Sampling, Measures of central Tendency, Correlation, Regression, Standard Error of Sampling Distribution, Significance TestingTests of Significance Prevention of Blindness- Causes of Blindness- National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB) in India, Objectives, Main Activities, Assistance for Government Fixed Facilities, Assistance to NGO's, Organisation Infrastructure, D.B.C.S. (District Blindness Control Society), Micro Planning at District Level, Vision 2020: The Right to Sight, Strategies and Activities, Strengthening Human Resources, Eye Care Infrastructure, Management Information System, Role of NGO's, Programme Organisation. Health Insurance- Historical Overview and Evolution, Constitutional Provision, Social Concepts, Health Insurance Schemes, Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS), Employee state Insurance Scheme, Emerging Scenario, Situational Analysis, Insurance Regulatory and Development Act (IRDA), Likely Set-up after Privatization. LEARNING SOURCE: Self Learning Materials
ADDITIONAL READINGS:
BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT
The distance learner should submit the following records at the end of the fourth year and detailed plan on both records are to be intimated to the University on or before the annual examination of the third year. OPTHALMIC CASE STUDIES
The distance learner should submit a report on the data available with the secondary level (or higher) hospital on the specific critical diseases of the locality. The report should contain at least five cases on locale specific diseases on which treatment and care have been rendered for more than one month. OPTOMETRY REFLECTIVE REPORT
The distance learner should submit a detailed report relating to the experiences on strategies, procedures
and technological practices under the guidance of an ophthalmic expert not below the level of
M.S.(Ophthalmology). The learner should spend minimum 45 days in each of the areas listed below for a
total period of 6 months.

Areas:
1. Clinical Optometry: Contact lenses, Binocular vision & Low vision.
2. Investigative Optometry
3. Dispensing Optics
4. Community Optometry
BACHELOR OF OPTOMETRY & OPHTHALMIC TECHNOLOGY - BOOT

Source: http://aiips.in/BOOT.pdf

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European Journal of Human Genetics (2001) 9, 797 ± 801ã 2001 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved 1018-4813/01 $15.00www.nature.com/ejhgThe angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphismIgor B Nazarov*,1,3, David R Woods2, Hugh E Montgomery2, Olga V Shneider1,3,Vasiliy I Kazakov1, Nikolai V Tomilin1 and Viktor A Rogozkin31Institute of Cytology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tikc

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Express Scripts Home Delivery Pharmacy Services Frequently Asked Questions Revision date 2/19/2010 *This document is for reference only and is applicable to membership that has migrated to ESI systems. **Members who have an inquiry regarding Home Delivery should be directed to the Express Scripts Patient Care Contact Center. Note: Documentation is accurate as

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