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Hebrew(jewish) calendar application for java mobile phones

Hebrew(Jewish) calendar application for Java mobile phones Introduction
Molad and 'Molad'
Molad (birth) is a Hebrew word for new moon. While new moon causes superstitions and horror in the
Christian world, for the Jewish culture Molad means new month, new year, new live. Despite scientific
declarations of the Universal mortality, for me Molad symbolises the eternity of the Universe, live, . and the
calendar !
This application is designed to suit any Java compatible mobile device with 50K of RAM. Colour support and screen size 120x120 or more (e.g. Nokia Series 40 and 60, Motorola T720, A830 etc) would be anadvantage. With Siemens mobile devices (screen size 101x64 or 101x80 pixels), or Nokia Series 30 (96x65pixels) the application feels less comfortable though is still fully operational.
Most of other Hebrew calendar programs don't accept a secular date before year 1752 Common Era (C.E.) −the day when Gregorian calendar was introduced in England (?|). It might look naive, but I can't understandwhy a Hebrew calendar application should depend on such a minor event. This application supports Hebrewyears in the range from 1 to 5000000 − hopefully enough for now :). Given that different countries adoptedGregorian calendar at a different time, you can specify the changeover date, so that the appropriate secularcalendar will be chosen automatically.
Because of limited resources the application cannot be as versatile as the ones designed for a PC, or for aspecific mobile device. Here are the features that I would like to support, but either would make theapplication less efficient or too big, or simply impossible to implement: Calendar clock − I might find time for that one day.
Monthly calendar pages − this would look terribly bad on a small screen.
Sunrise, sunset, candle lighting time. Probably all applications (whether or not they tell it) use a sunrise/sunset algorithm from Almamac of Computers 1990, published by Nautical Almanac OfficeUnited States Naval Observatory Washington, DC 20392. The algorithm significantly relies a lot oftrigonometric functions, while J2ME doesn't provide event basic ones. Writing own classes would beinefficient, because of a lot of floating−point calculation being involved. Floating−point calculationcan be avoided with precalculated tables, but that would either be inaccurate, or enormously increasethe size of application.
Hebrew characters − concise and no need for short names :) Unfortunately Hebrew characters are not supported by default, while a third party product probably can't be emulated. Introduction date for each holiday. As far as I know, holidays like Chanukah or Purim are not as old as Pesach, therefore it doesn't look logical to show Chanukah say for year 1000 H.C. Unfortunately, Idon't know exact introduction dates even for new holidays like Yom Zikaron, or Yom Atzmaut.
Hebrew(Jewish) calendar application for Java mobile phones Credits and Links
HebCal by Danny Sadinoff a UNIX (Linux and Solaris) product ported to Windows.
Congratulations Danny, well done. The code has been thoroughly studied and used as an excellent source of
information.
Chelm.org's explanation of the Jewish Calendar
Copyright 1999 Steven Ross Weintraub
A clear and comprehensive explanation, even a code provided. Unfortunately the code doesn't work before
year 1760 C.E., and apart from that, the logic for Rosh HaShanah calculation doesn't look 100% accurate to
me.
Judaism 101. Jewish Calendar
Copyright 1995−2001 Tracey R RichA very simple explanation of the calendar which doesn't pretend to be exhaustive, but might be sufficient fornon−developers.
Orthodox Union
A good source of information about Jewish history, culture, holidays. Contains Zmanim tables, publications,
and more.
Countries Calendar Reform
You might wish to visit the page to find out the date when Gregorian calendar was adopted in your area,
Molad has been developed and is maintained by Michael Glickman (Australia) and is distributed free ofcharge.
Current and the only version is 1.0. Today is 10th of Kislev 5764 ( 5 Dec 2004). Let it be a Chanukah present for the Jewish community all over the world . and another chance to oppose Microsoft expansion (J2ME isone of very few platforms completely free of Microsoft interference).
Being interested in Jewish culture, I am not a religious person, have no religious friends, and don't visit a
synagogue. This is why your comments are so important to me. Please, send me your suggestions, bug
You are strongly advised not to use this address for anything not
related to our software.
The mail box quite often runs out of quota, in which case we are unable to attend a
really valuable message.
The code has been developed using j2mewtk v 1.4 and 2.0 for Linux with Nokia Series 30 and 60 MIDPConcept SDKs, and occasionally tested on real devices as well as with Windows−only emulators like Nokia Hebrew(Jewish) calendar application for Java mobile phones Series 40, Motorola and Siemens. The manual has been prepared with Netscape 7.02 composer andHTMLDOC for Linux.
For developers
I've build moladlib − a library, containing all the calculations used in the application (practically everithingapart from GUI). The libaray is distributed under GNU Public License (GPL). The library is available fromthe application site.
Another package contains the text classes used by the application. If you want to translate Molad to anotherlanguage, just replace the text in the classes and send the updated files to me. Please, try to avoid thetranslation being longer than the original text.
How the calendars operate
Hebrew calendar
−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−Have you noticed how the moon changes its shape throughout the month? At times, it shines brightly like a cream−colored ball.
Other times, we can compare it to a slice of honeydew. On some nights, it looks like a split banana! Sometimes, you can't see it atall! While in bed watching the moon, take a peek through your window, shut your eyes for a moment and imagine a scene takingplace many years ago in Eretz Yisrael In the Great Beit−Din, the chief Rabbi sits in his honored place, greeting the Jew who just arrived in the court. "I saw the moon lastnight, Rabbi, and I believe it is the beginning of a new month," reports the Jew. The Rabbi motions to a chart with many differentmoon shapes hanging on the wall. "Is this the shape you saw?" asks the Rabbi, pointing to a particular shape. The man whowitnessed the moon would be questioned until the judges were satisfied. When the judges heard proper testimony from at least twowitnesses, they would declare that a new month had arrived −−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−−− That's how the calendar worked in good old days, until Hilel II established a fixed calendar in the year 359C.E.
Current Hebrew Calendar (H.C.) is a synthesis of astronomy, mathematics, religion . and creativity.
It is a lunisolar (moon + sun) clarendar based on the following facts: The lunar month (time between two consecutive new moons) is 29 days 12 hrs and 793 parts (chelekim) , each part being a 1/1080 of an hour.
235 lunar months are equal in duration to 19 solar years.
If we temporary disregard 793 parts in the lunar month we get 29.5 days in month, or 59 days in two months.
For that reason Hebrew months alternate in duration between 30 and 29: (*) Normally Cheshvan has 29 days, Kislev has 30 days. A day can is added to Cheshvan, or taken away from Kislev in order to geta year a day longer, or shorter. See comments below.
(**) Adar Alef and Adar Bet replace Adar in a leap year − see comments below Hebrew(Jewish) calendar application for Java mobile phones A year cannot be purely lunar, otherwise holiday seasons would drift. Relation 2 yields the average numberof lunar months in a year as 235/19 or 12 7/19. In the Hebrew calendar a "regular" year has 12 months, butwhenever the accumulated fraction jumps over a whole number (i.e f*(y−1) < N <= f*y, wheref=7/19, y−year number, N−a whole number (***)) , an additional month is added to a year. A year with anadditional month is a leap year. In a leap year the last month Adar (29 days) is replaced by two months: AdarAlef (Adar 1) of 30 days, and Adar Bet (Adar 2) of 29 days. Simple mathematics show that leap years are3rd, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th and 19th in a 19−year cycle, so that each cycle has 12 non−leap and 7 leapyears. (Indeed, 7 and 12 are special for any occasion !) Please note that the last month in the calendar is notthe last month of a year: a new year (Rosh HaShanah) starts at 1 Tishri, just in the middle of a calendar year− after all, a tricky nation can afford a tricky calendar :). (***) In fact we don't need to keep the old fraction! Since 19 is a prime number, a fraction like (7*y)/19 jumps over a wholenumber if an only if the remainder (7*y) % 19 gets less than 7.
Remember extra 793 parts in the lunar month ? Something has to be done about that. The solution providedby the calendar is pretty straightforward: calculate the exact time of a new moon (molad) for Tishri (the newyear month), if it is noon or afternoon, the new year (Rosh HaShanah) is postponed one day. Well, it looksreally simple . and too simple to be the case. There is also a requirement that some holidays should not fallon a particular day of a week, like Yom Kippur must not be adjacent to Shabbat (i.e. cannot be Yom 6, orYom 1), and Hoshanah Rabah should not fall on Shabbat. These dehiot adjustments might also result in RoshHaShanah being postponed. See the source code for the details.
In order to postpone Rosh HaShanah, a day is added to Cheshvan, extending it to 30 days. Since yearextension is not always astronomically justified, the following year might need to be reduced by one day tokeep in path with the solar year. To do that a month is taken from Kislev leaving it with 29 days. Note thatonly one of the two months can be altered.
Any questions so far ? I have one. How was it possible to calculate all that without a computer ? :=) −−−−−−−−−−−−−−− Few more remarks not related to the calendar algorithm, but still might interest someone.
Relation 2 (19 solar yrs = 235 lunar mnth) is named Metonic cycle after Greek (Athenian) astronomer Meton (4th century C.E.), but there is a striong evidence that this relation was known to Babylonian and Chinese astronomers before Meton.
Combining facts 1 and 2 we can ewvaluate solar year as 365 days and 5 1847/4107 hrs, or 365days 5 hrs 26 min 58.92 sec, where according to the current astonomic data this is 365.242199 or 365 days 5hours 48 min and 46 sec, which ieven less accurate than Julian calendar. I haven't heard aboutforthcoming reform of Hebrew calendar though :)The Bible refers to months by numbers, not by names, and (as far as I know) there is no eveidence to find out how the caledar was organised at that time. But there is a certain evidence that Babyloniancalendar used 19 year cycles with 12 years of 12 months and 7 years of 13 months, and theBabylonian names of months (Nisanu, Ayaru, Simann, Du'uru, Abu, Ululu, Tashritu, Avakhsamna,Kislimu, Tebetu, Shabatu, Adaru) sound very similar to Hebrew months, BTW can you guess waswas the name of 13th month ? Adaru−2 ! Actully there is a strong belief that current Hebrewcalendar is actually derived the Babylon and adoped probably during Exile in 6th century B.C.E.
Hebrew(Jewish) calendar application for Java mobile phones Julian and Gregorian Calendars
The calendar used world wide is derived from Julian calendar attributed to Roman emperor Julius Caesar. Thecalendar assumes a solar year to be 365 days and 6 hours. This produces one extra day added to February oncein every 4 years. The year with 366 instead of 365 days is a bisesytle or leap year. In Julian calendar everymultiple of 4 corresponds to a leap year.
By 7th century C.E. the Christian world started counting years from the birth of Christ (H.C. year 3761), whatis referred as Common or Christian Era (C.E.) in Jewish terminology, while dates 'Before Christ' are referredas Before Common Era (B.C.E). Please note that there is no year 0, so that year 1 B.C.E. is followed by year1 C.E.
The actual solar year is "only" about 365 days 5 hrs and 48 min and 46 sec. This gives extra 11 min 14 sec pera year, or extra 3 days in 4 centuries. This suggests that number of years is 4 centuries should be reduced by3. In the 16th century C.E. the vernal (Spring) equinox felt on 11th of March, i.e, 10 days before the calendarequinox day, which could no longer be tolerated. The new calendar, developed under the leadership of Jesuitmathematician and astronomer Christoph Clavius only slightly differs from Julian calendar. Any multiple of100 would correspond to a leap year in Julian calendar, whereas in the new calendar for a leap year it mustalso be a multiple of 400. Thus years 1600 and 2000 are leap years, whereas years 1700, 1800 and 1900aren't.
The new Gregorian calendar was introduced in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII who ordered that 4th of Octoberwas to be followed by 15th of October. That dropped 10 days from October and re−established theconsistency of solar and calendar years. The reform took place in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain, othercatholic countries soon followed. In England and colonies (including Ireland, and Eastern part of USA) Gregorian calendar was introduced in 1752 (2 Sept. followed by 14 Sept.), while Christian orthodox countriesadopted Gregorian calendar not until 20th century (Russia: 31Jan1918− 14Feb1918, Greece:9Mar1924−23Mar1924).
Using the Application
Terms Explained
Phone Keys
This refers to keys [1] −[9], [*], [0], [#].
[1] [2] [3][4] [5] [6][7] [8] [9][*] [0] [#] would be the best fit, however a non−T9 keypad (e.g. Nokia 3650 or Siemens SX1) will also do.
Some expensive models (Sony Ericsson P800, Nokia Series 90, Motorola 388) a designed to be used with astylus, something the application currently does not support. However in some cases there is a way around.
For example P800 has buttons labeled [A] [B] [C] [D] translated to corresponding game keys Other Keys
Key located below the screen. All devices have at least two screen buttons: Left andRight,some models also have a middle screen button. Screen buttons are used for entering Press corresponding arrow key, or move joystick in appropriate direction The location of FIRE key is device specific. If unsure try the following: Press joystick, or the middle of arrow pad SEND key (often with a green handset picture) Additional keys referred as "Game Keys". This is optional Hebrew(Jewish) calendar application for Java mobile phones Commands
To enter a command, press Left or Right screen button (depending on the model). This often brings you a listof available commands. Highlight a command using UP and DOWN keys, then enter FIRE to execute it. Foryour convenience some models assign a command like Quit, Close, Back, Cancel to a separate screen button− just press a button to select it.
Date View ("calendar") Screen
The application starts with a Date View screen for today. You can change date using navigation keys, Date View Data
Date View screen consists of several parts.
Hebrew date (right) and corresponding Common (Gregorian or Julian) date (left) year, day of week, day andmonth. A Secular (common) year Before Common Era (B.C.E) is shown with suffix B (e.g. 300B stands foryear 300 B.C.E.) The arrow in the middle of Date panel shows current navigation calendar: −> Hebrew calendar is current<− Common calendar is current Information Bar
A bar below the date shows an additional informations, like indicators, moon phase, day count.
Indicator is one of the following letters: J − Julian calendar (if omitted , then Gregorian calendar is used)L − Leap year. Left L refers to a Common leap year, while right L denotes Hebrew leap year.
Moon phase is shown as a shape and percentage of lunar month elapsed: Hebrew(Jewish) calendar application for Java mobile phones Day count is either an Omer day (Sefirat HaOmer starts after Passover/Pesach and ends before Shavuot), or aday in 3−week period between two fasts (17 Tammuz and 9 Av), or a day from Rosh HaShanah if neitherOmer nor 3W apply. Omer and 3W days are shown if 'show Omer/3W' is enabled in Settings, in which case aspecial colour is used for Omer/3W pages.
The information bar for a Shabbat day might be extended with Shabbat names (like Shabbat HaGadol beingthe last Shabbat before Pesach), or weekly Torah readings (sedrot). For that you need to enable respectively 'show Shabbat' and/or 'show Sedrot' in Settings.
The list of events (holidays and custom events) corresponding to current day. The events shown here arespecified with DISPLAYED event option.
Controlling Date View Screen
The following keys are used to control Date View screen Key (−s)
Previous monthGoes one Hebrew or Secular month back depending on navigation calendar Next monthGoes one Hebrew or Secular month forward depending on navigation calendar Previous YearGoes one Hebrew or Secular year back depending on navigation calendar.
Next YearGoes one Hebrew or Secular year forward depending on navigation calendar.
Navigate ByChange navigation calendar. Current navigation calendar is indicated by an arrow in the Hebrew(Jewish) calendar application for Java mobile phones Turn PageIf the information requires several pages, pressing a key will select next display page.
Date View Commands
The following commands are available from Date View screen.
Description
Show list of events preceding the viewed date. The events are shown in ascending date order.
Each line contains event name and either event date, or number of days left, depending on the Show list of events following the viewed date. The events are shown in descending dateorder.
Each line contains event name and either event date, or number of days past, depending on the About Molad Show release information, application details and credits Multiple Pages and Auto−Turn Page
In some cases (especially with a small size screen) screen size might be insufficient to fit all data. In this casethe information is shown in several pages. Use [0] or [C] to turn page. While turning pages you get back tostarting page after all pages are displayed.
You can specify Auto−Turn Page option, in which case page will is turned automatically every 4 seconds.
Date Set Screen
Date set screen provides another way for to specify a date for Date View. It might be more efficient than usinga navigation keys, especially with a slow device, or the target date is far away from the viewed date. Inparticular you can jump directly to a specified date.
You can call Date Set to select either Hebrew or Common date. Since only one date is shown, navigationcalendar is not applicable to Date Set screen.
Hebrew(Jewish) calendar application for Java mobile phones Controlling Date Set Screen
Key (−s)
Enter Year Before Common Era. (Common dateonly)Same as Enter Year B.C command Default dateGo to a date effective before calling Date Setscreen OKShow Date View screen for selected date Date Set Commands
The following commands can be activated from Date Set screen Description
Show Date View screen for selected date,(accept selected date as the last Julian if called from Settings) Brings a separate screen for entering year.
Only digits can be enteredFor a common date, Common Era (C.E) is assumed Hebrew(Jewish) calendar application for Java mobile phones Return to previous screen without changing date The application accepts dates in a range from 1 Tishri 1 to 29 Elul 5000000, which corresponds to 7 October3761 B.C.E. Julian to 1 November 4996299 C.E. Gregorian. Please note that year 0 is never accepted since(as mentioned before) year 1 B.C.E. is followed by year 1 C.E.
Settings Screen
Settings Screen is a actually front end to various other panels, that provide custom features.
Top bring up Settings screen press [1] or select Settings command from Date View screen.
To change an item press FIRE key or enter Select command. Some item (Location, Navigate, List) changevalue "on fly" others will bring up a separate screen.
Settings Screen contains the following items: Israel or Diaspora.
Choice of location affects duration of holidays and sedra scheme.
In Israel some holidays are shorter than in Diaspora (that makes sense:major holidays are official non−working days in Israel, but not inDiaspora :) ) The last day of Julian Calendar. By default it is 4Oct 1582 − the lastday of Julian Calendar in the first countries adopted Gregoriancalendar. For an English−speaking country you might prefer 2 Sept1752.
with Date View.
Specifies which information is shown in the list of Coming or Pastevents: Date − event common date.
Interval − number of days between the event date and view date separated with > for coming events. or < for past events Show Sedrot
Hebrew(Jewish) calendar application for Java mobile phones A Auto−Page
turn page automatically in Date View screen, as Pressing FIRE for Options brings a list of options where you need totick options you wish to enable. Enter Close command for gettingback to Settings Show Holidays Setup screen to assign display options for Holidays Show Custom Events Screen to maintain the list of custom events Accept new settings and get back to Date View screen.
Holidays and Custom Events
I use term events as a common name for holidays and custom events. Event Display Options
Event display options control the presence and appearance of an event. The following options are supported . the event appears in a list of coming and past event . the event is show at Date View page for appropriate date Highlight . the date view page for the event is show in a different colour . the event is appears for the preceding date as Erev (e.g. 'Erev Rosh HaShanah' at 29 of Adar/AdarB page) . the event is celebrated twice in a leap year, as Katan (Small) in AdarA andexplanations.
An event never appears as 'Erev' in a list of Coming/Past events.
An event listed as Erev does not cause page highlighting, but its name is typed highlighted, if Highlight is enabled.
A Katan Event is not highlighted, but other settings apply. In particular List enables listing Katan Event in Coming/Past, while enabling Erev will produce a line like 'Erev MyEvent Katan' for thedate preceding Katan event.
Customising Holidays
Display options is the only customised feature for holidays. You can select holidays to be listed for Hebrew(Jewish) calendar application for Java mobile phones To specify display options for a holiday: Settings command (or press [1] key) Holidays and press FIRE key. This brings up the list of holidays, where each holiday is shown with initial letters of enabled display optionsSelect a holiday you wish to set up and press FIRE key get the list of options.
Press FIRE key to enable/disable highlighted option in the list, enter options are now effective. Please note, that Display will be actually disabled only in case bothHighlight and Erev are also disabled.
Options for holiday name Rosh Chod. (short for Rosh Chodesh − start of month) apply to start of each month.
If enabled, you get events like 'Rosh Chodesh <month name>' listed / displayed for 1st of each Hebrew
month.
Custom Events
Event Name (up to 20 chars) used for Date View page Event Short Name − used for event lists and compound names (i.e with Event Date: Hebrew day and month, number of days (1 by default) Settings command (or press [1] key) Custom events and press FIRE key. This brings up the list of custom The list of custom events contains custom event short names with initial letters of enabled display options.
The last (or the only) line named New Event . You can have up to 128 custom events.
To add or edit an event, select an event (New Event . for adding) and press FIRE to get Event Setup screen.
You can go straight to event options by entering Set Options comman. To delete an event enter Deletecommand.
Event Setup screen shows event names, event date and options. Use UP and DOWN key to navigate betweenevent names and options (some devices might have it in a different way).
Default display options of a custom event are Listed, Displayed. To edit display options enter SetOptions command. This brings up Display Options setup Event date is initially set to the day and month of the active (last viewed) date − the date shown on Date View
Screen before Settings command was entered. To change the event date enter Set Date command − this
brings up Event Date Setup screen.
Hebrew(Jewish) calendar application for Java mobile phones The following keys are used with Event Date Setup screen: Key (−s)
Get day and month from the active (last viewed) date It is assumed that Cheshvan, Kislev and Adar have 30 days. In years where a month has 29 days, the event assigned to 30th of the month takes place at 29th of the month Adar Bet Events
Everybody knows that Purim is a lucky holiday. But someone might not realise that it also has a lucky date:14 of Adar Bet. Since non−leap years don't have AdarB, the holiday is celebrated at 14 of Adar. But in a leapyear Purim is celebrated twice: as Purim Katan ("Small Purim") at 14 of AdarA, and "main" Purim at 14 ofAdarB ! If you are lucky enough to be born or married in AdarB, you can follow Purim tradition and celebrate yourremarkable date twice in a leap year. To do that you set up a custom event for AdarB, and enable Katan as

Source: http://www.caller.cz/data/files/670-MoladManual.pdf

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