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G L O S S A R Y O F Y I D D I S H A N D H E B R E W
Bereishis: First book of the Torah. Called Genesis
Admor: Hebrew initials for: Adonenu Morenu
VeRabenu (Our master, Our teacher our Rabbi).
This is a title commonly used with Chassidic
Rebbes. Admor of Ger, Admor of Satmer etc.
bucharim: Hebrew/Yiddish for young men who
1. Hebrew literally ‘binding’ Refers to the binding
2. Jewish scholarly book dealing with the funda-
caftan: Type of long garment worn by Chasidim
al Kiddish HaShem: Heb. for the sanctification
Chas V’Shalom: Hebrew for ‘G-d forbid’
of HaShem. Refers to someone who is killed for
chason: Hebrew/Yiddish for a man who is en-
Alsheich: Jewish Biblical commentator Rabbi
Chazal: Hebrew initials for: Chochmenu Zichrona
Am HaAretz: Hebrew means ‘people of the land’ Levaracha (Our sages of Blessed memory) Used to
and refers to those who are ignorant of the Torah. refer to Rabbis of the Talmud
Amidah: Refers to the main silent prayer said
Chesed: Hebrew word meaning acts of mercy
Amora(Amoraim): Rabbis of the period of the
Cheshvon: Eighth month of the hebrew calendar
Chocham(Chochomim): Hebrew for ‘sage’ or
Amorah: Biblical city filled with wicked people
Chol HaMoed: Intermediate days of a holiday
Apikorsim: Heretics who reject the teachings of
Chovos HaLavavos: a moralistic and philosophi-
Ari Z’L: Hebrew initials of the words: Adoni
Chozeh: Hebrew for seer (prophet). Rebbe Yakov
master Rabbi Yitzchok. Better known as Yitzchok
Yitzchok of Lublin was called the Chozeh because
Aron Kodesh: Hebrew for ‘the holy ark’ place in
Chukos: Weekly portion where the Torah is read
the synagogue where the Torah scrolls are kept.
avodah: Hebrew word meaning ‘service’. Refers
Dayanim: Hebrew for judge. Refers to religious
Days of Awe: The days around the holidays of
Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur, so called because
derech: Heb ‘way’ refers to a path in serving
Baal(es) Tzaddakah: Hebrew word meaning a
Devorim: Fifth book of the Torah. Called in
Bamidbar: Fourth book of the Torah. Called in
Drash: A method of Biblical interpretation ascrib-
ing moral or ethical meaning to verses in the
bechina(bechinos): a subdivision of an *Inyan.
Eliyahu HaNavi: Hebrew for the prophet Elijah
Eruv: A legal act that causes different residences
Kavanah(Kavanos): Hebrew word for ‘inten-
Eyov: The Hebrew name for the book of Job
Kesuvim: Third part of the Tenach. Lit. Writings
Kiddish: Ceremony performed on Friday night
Koheles: One of the books of the Tenach, called
Kohen(Kohanim): Hebrew for ‘the Priest’ refers
gematria: Numerical value of the letters of the
to someone who is a direct paternal descendant
Gemilos Chasadim: Hebrew word referring to
kol v’chomer: Inference from a thing that is
Ger Toshiv: A ‘partial’ convert who agrees not
lesser/lighter to a thing which is greater/more
kosel marovi: Hebrew for Western Wall, the only
Gaon: Hebrew title of one who is an especially
remaining standing part of the Temple.
kosher: Heb. fit. Refers to food that is permitted
gehennim: Place where one is punished for one’s
sins after death. The Talmud says that except for
kvitel: A note with names given to a Rebbe for
especially wicked souls, the normal stay is up to
gematria: The numerical value of the Hebrew
L’Chaim: Refers to a custom of drinking and
wishing L’Chaim - to life one to the other
Haftorah: A portion of the Tenach read after the
Haggadah: Sefer that relates the story of the
machiton: Yiddish word that refers to ones
Exodus from Egypt and other things related to the child’s in-laws
MaHarsha: Hebrew initials for : Moreinu HaRav
HaKohen: Hebrew for ‘the Priest’ refers to
Shmuel Eliezer (our teacher Rabbi Shmuel Eliezer)
someone who is a direct paternal descendant from a famous Talmud commentator
Maggid: In Europe this was a person who would
give sermons on moral subjects. Many of the first
Rebbes were Maggidim (pl. of Maggid).
Malachi: One of the books of the Tenach.
HaShem: Noun used in place of G-d. Lit. The
Man: Hebrew for manna. The bread that fell from
mazel tov: Hebrew for ‘good luck’. Used for a
house of a Rebbe and took care of private matters wish of congratulations on various occasions
matonos l’evyonim: Hebrew for gifts to the
Hoshanah Rabbah: Last day of the intermediate poor. One of the mitzvos of Purim.
days of Succos. It is considered to be similar to
Yom Kippur in that it is a time of repentance.
2. Another name for the Biblical book of Esther
Megillas Esther: Hebrew for the book of Esther
melamed: Hebrew for a teacher of young chil-
Inyan: A spiritual concept or idea. A general idea
mesiros nefesh: Hebrew for self sacrifice
as opposed to specifics. The specifics would be
mezuzah: parchment with various portions of
the Torah which is hung on the side of the door.
Ivdah: A story that shows or teaches a specific
midah(midos): A character trait, either good or
Midrash: Rabbinical work with homiletic interpre-
Parsha (Parshos): lit. ‘portion’ refers to the
Midrash Pleah: A specific Midrash which con-
portion of the Torah read each week.
tains Midrashic teachings that are difficult to
Torah read on the Shabbos before the first of the
mikdash: Hebrew of temple, lit. place of holiness
mikvah:Hebrew word referring to a ritual bath
Parshas Porah: Special Parsha of the Torah read
payyut: A type of prayer similar to a poem said
minyan: Group of Jewish men (at least ten) who
Mishleh: One of the books of the Tenach, called
Pesachim: One of the Tractates of the Talmud
peshat: A method of Biblical interpretation based
Mishloach Monos: Hebrew for the sending of
on finding the simple meaning in the Torah.
delicacies. One of the mitzvos of Purim.
Mishnah: An ancient Jewish work made of spe-
pilpul (pilpulim): Method of learning which
Mispor Katon: Type of gematria where the value involves hair-splitting logic.
Mitzrayim: Hebrew name for the land of Egypt
mitzvah(mitzvos): One of the commandments
Rambam: Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon also called
mohel: Hebrew/Yiddish word for the person who
Ramban: Rabbi Nachman ben Moshe, also called
Rashi: The primary commentary on the Tenach.
Rav: An official rabbi who renders legal decisions.
teacher. A common Jewish way of referring to
Chasidim, and the Rov of the city in which they
Motzeh Shabbos: Hebrew for Saturday night
Reb: A title added to a persons name as a sign of
musar: Hebrew for moral instruction.
Rebbe: Leader of a Chassidic group or a teacher
Rebbe Reb: A title added to a few special
Rebbes as a sign of their higher spiritual stature.
remez: A method of Biblical interpretation based
Neviium: Second part of the Tenach. Lit. Proph-
on finding hints in the Torah for various concepts.
niggunim: Hebrew for songs. Usually used to
1. Heb. New Year Holiday at the beginning
refer to tunes composed and sung by Chasidim
Nissan: First month of the Hebrew calendar
Ruach HaKodesh: Heb spirit of holiness. Refers
to one who can see events, and understand things
O’H: Hebrew initials for the words: Olav HaShalom that are not apparent to the human eye.
Orach Chaim: One of 4 sections of the Shulchan
Aruch. This deals with the laws that apply to each
person on a daily basis, throughout the year.
traditional name of the angel also called Satan.
They are used instead of the name itself.
Seder: Meal eaten the night of Passover where
Shofar: A ram’s horn blown on Rosh HaShanah
the Exodus from Egypt is remembered.
shtender: A stand of lectern, where books were
sefer(seforim): A Jewish religious book.
placed during learning, or where a prayer book was
Sefer Yitzerah: Hebrew Kabbalistic work.
Seferah: The mitzvah of counting the days from
Shulchan Aruch: 15th/16th century book of
Segal: Hebrew for ‘Segan L’Kohen’ assistant to
the priest. refers to one who is of the tribe of
Simchas Torah: Second day of Shemini Atzeres
(in Israel there is only a single day), where one
Shabbos Chazon: Shabbos before Tisha B’Av
celebrates the completion of the readings of the
Shabbos Shekalim and Shabbos Zachor.
Slichos: Penitential prayers said on the days
Shabbos Nachmu: Shabbos after Tisha B’Av
Shabbos Shekalim: Shabbos before the 1st of
sod: A method of Biblical interpretation based on
describing secret teachings in the Torah.
Sodom: Biblical city filled with wicked people
Shabbos Zachor: Shabbos before the holiday of strakes: Strips of velvet sown into the garments
of some of the Rebbes, or great Rabbis.
Succos: Holiday after Yom Kippur where people
peaceful relations between husband and wife
Shechina: Hebrew word denoting the divine
Sukkah: One of the tractates of the Talmud
Taanis: One of the tractates of the Talmud.
sheiner yid: Yiddish phrase referring to a Jew
Talis(talesim): A special garment that is used to
who considers himself better then others.
Sheolos v’Tshuvos: Heb. Questions and An-
swers. This refers to Jewish scholarly books which
Talmid (Talmidim): Disciples of a Rebbe.
are based on legal questions asked of Rabbis and
Talmud: An ancient work of Jewish law.
Shevous: Jewish holiday 50 days after Pesach
Hebrew for Talmud sage, refers to one who is
Shemini Atzeres: Eighth day of the holiday of
Shema: Main Jewish prayer of the confession of
faith. Contains 3 parshas. Devorim 6.5-9; 11.13-
Targum Onkeles: Aramaic translation of the
Shemos: The second book of the Torah. Called in Torah by Onkeles
Taz: One of the major commentators on the
Shevi’i Shel Pesach: Seventh day of the
techalis: thread of blue wool attached to a talis
Shir HaShirim: Hebrew name for the Song of
Tekunei Zohar: The most esoteric section of
Tenach: First letters from the three Hebrew
Shlah: Jewish scholarly commentary on the
words: Torah, Neviium, Kesuvim, which are the
Torah, and Jewish holidays by Rabbi Isaiah
divisions of the jewish Bible. Torah is the first five
books, Neviium are the prophetic works and
Shlita: Hebrew Initials for the words: Sh’Yichiya
L’Aruch Yomim Tovim Amen. (He should have a
tephilin: Special boxes that contain passages of
the Torah which are worn by men in daily prayer.
Shmuel: Hebrew name of the book of Samuel
shochet: Hebrew word for a person who per-
Tisha B’Av: 9th day of the month of Av, a major
tisch: Yiddish for ‘table’ Refers to a meal eaten
Zohar: Hebrew/Aramaic Rabbinical Kabbalistical
work that is one of the most important sources
Tishrei: Seventh Month of the Hebrew calendar
for Kabbalah, and was very influential with
Zohar Chadash: Literally ‘new Zohar’. A section
b. Also refers to the whole of Jewish law
c. also common term for a chassidic teaching
ZT’L: Hebrew initials of the words: Zechor
Tosephos: commentary on the talmud by the
Tzaddik LeVaracha (The memory of a Tzaddik -
ZTvK’L: Hebrew initials of the words: Zechor
Tzaddik veKadosh LeVaracha (The memory of a
Tzaddik - Righteous man and a Kodosh - a holy
ZY’A: Hebrew initials for Zechiso Yugan Aleini, His
Tzaddik (Tzaddikim): lit. Righteous. Another
tzitzis: Strands that hang from the corners of a
V’yikra: Hebrew for the book of Leviticus
Yakov Aveinu: Hebrew for ‘our father jacob’
Yavatz: Hebrew initials for Yaakov ben Tzvi.
Yechzkel: Hebrew name for the book of Ezekiel
Yerushalmi: Talmud that was compiled in Pales-
tine as opposed to the standard one that was
Yetzer: lit. Inclination. It is Jewish belief that
every Jew has both an evil and good inclination
within him, that are at ‘war’ to see which of them
Yetzer HaRah: Heb. Evil Inclination.
Yirmiya: Hebrew name for the book of Jeremiah
YM’Sh: Heb. Yimach Shimoh V’Zichro : Their
name should be erased Yom Kippur: The Day of
Atonement, the most holy day of the Jewish year.
Yortzheit: Yiddish for the day of the anniversary
Z’L: Hebrew initials of the words: Zechorono
Zemeros: sefer of songs sung on various occa-
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APLICACIÓN DE LAS TEORÍAS DE OREM Y PEPLAU EN EL PROCESO DE ATENCIÓN DE ENFERMERÍA. Hospital General Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara” RESUMEN : La Enfermería como profesión ha sido practicada por más de un siglo. Sus teorías han evolucionado más rápidamente en las últimas décadas, a través de ellas se han podido ver los conocimientos de la práctica de la profesión. Han