,EPXMRK%P^LIMQIV´WStopping mental degradation from Alzheimer’s makes quality ageing more possible by improving cognition and slowing the rate of decline.
-RSYVHMWGYWWMSRWSRISJXLIFMKFIXWJSVXLIJYXYVI *MRHMRKE[E]JSV[EVHJSV%P^LIMQIV´WMWEFYVRMRK in the health arena that many are focused on is MWWYIIWTIGMEPP]MRXLI97[LIVIXLIVIEVIGYVVIRXP] FIMRK EFPI XS LEPX XLI VMWI SJ%P^LIMQIV´W HMWIEWI 5.5 million patients and the direct and indirect costs This disease is a physical condition affecting the brain SJXLIHMWIEWIEQSYRXXSSZIVFMPPMSRERRYEPP] and is the most common cause of dementia. Today, -REHHMXMSRXLIHMWIEWIMW[IPPVIGSKRMWIHEWTPEGMRK [SVPH[MHIQMPPMSRTISTPILEZI%P^LIMQIV´WERH heavy economic and social burdens on caregivers. as the ageing demographic shift has greater impact, &]  [MXL QSVI TISTPI PMZMRK PSRKIV ERH WS E XLMWMWTVSNIGXIHXSVMWIXSQMPPMSRF] greater percentage of the population susceptible to XLI HMWIEWI XLI 97 MW JSVIGEWX XS LEZI  QMPPMSR 8LIVIMWGYVVIRXP]RSGYVIJSV%P^LIMQIV´WHMWIEWI TISTPI [MXL %P^LIMQIV´W ERH XLI FYVHIR SR XLI However, drug treatments are available that can LIEPXLGEVIW]WXIQGSYPHFIEWLMKLEWFMPPMSR alleviate the symptoms and even slow down the HMWIEWI´WTVSKVIWWMSRMRWSQITEXMIRXW%PXLSYKLXLI ;LMPI ½RHMRK E GYVI JSV %P^LIMQIV´W QE] XEOI exact causes of the disease are still being investigated, PSRKIV XLER SYV  LSVM^SR E GETEFMPMX] SJ TISTPI [MXL %P^LIMQIV´W EVI ORS[R XS LEZI E WXSTTMRKHIKVEHEXMSRMWLMKLP]TVSFEFPI-RJEGXSZIV shortage of the chemical acetylcholine in their brains. the past few years, there have been some major (VYKWEZEMPEFPIXSTISTPIMRXLIQSHIVEXIWXEKIWSJ HIZIPSTQIRXW[LMGLKMZILSTI/I]XSQER]SJXLIWI HIQIRXMEWYGLEW%VMGITX)\IPSRERH6IQMR]P[SVO is the use of adult stem cells as a base for developing by maintaining existing supplies of acetylcholine, the chemical compound which activates muscles. Another drug, the only one that is suitable for use in people in the middle to later stages of dementia, By 2050, with more people living longer MW GEPPIH )FM\E ERH [SVOW MR E HMJJIVIRX [E] ď MX and so a greater percentage of the prevents the excess entry of calcium ions into brain GIPPW)\GIWWGEPGMYQMRXLIFVEMRGIPPWHEQEKIWXLIQ population susceptible to the disease, and prevents them from receiving messages from the US is forecast to have 14 mil ion other brain cells. These drugs are not a cure for %P^LIMQIV´WEWXLI]LEZIRSIJJIGXSRXLIYRHIVP]MRK people with Alzheimer’s and the burden degenerative process of the disease, but they can on the healthcare system could be as stabilise some of the symptoms for a limited period of time.
of larger, normal parent molecules. These segments damage neurons and synapses and, as they build up, either in soluble form or clumped into plaques, cause XLIIEVP]SRWIXSJ%P^LIMQIV´W7SQISJXLITVSGIWWIWYRHIV HIZIPSTQIRX EVI JSGYWIH WTIGM½GEPP] SRpreventing amyloid beta from being formed in the ½VWXTPEGIERHEPWSXV]XSWXSTXLIQSPIGYPIWJVSQattaching to one another if they do form. Once the W]QTXSQWSJ%P^LIMQIV´WWYGLEWQIQSV]PSWWEVIevident, a great deal of neurological damage has already been done. Therefore, by monitoring and measuring amyloid beta levels in healthy people before any degradation, the onset of the disease can be detected in advance and remedies applied. Others suggest that ‘a broader strategy is needed, SRI XLEX MRGSVTSVEXIW XLI VSPI SJ RI[P] MHIRXM½IHgenes and even the chemical processes responsible JSVOMPPMRKRIVZIGIPPW´ new healthy brain cells. As was highlighted during the Future Agenda programme, ‘several treatments &]  XLIWI ERH SXLIV RI[ HIZIPSTQIRXW MR in development are designed either to improve genetics and biotechnology are expected to ‘slow GSKRMXMSRSVXSWPS[XLIVEXISJHIGPMRI´ERHWSQI the progression of the disease and further alleviate of the most promising avenues of research being MXW FILEZMSYVEP ERH TW]GLSPSKMGEP IJJIGXW´ %W E YRHIVXEOIR EX YRMZIVWMXMIW MRGPYHMRK &IVOIPI] JSGYW consequence, those diagnosed and treated in the IEVP] WXEKIW SJ%P^LIMQIV´W [MPP TVSFEFP] IRNS] JEVKVIEXIVWIPJWYJ½GMIRG]XLERMWTSWWMFPIXSHE] An increasingly accepted hypothesis about %P^LIMQIV´WMWXLEXMXMRZSPZIWXLIEGGYQYPEXMSRSJE -R E WMQMPEV ZIMR MX MW MRGVIEWMRKP] TVSFEFPI XLEX F] TEVXMGYPEVTVSXIMRORS[REWEQ]PSMHFIXE[LMGLMWE  [I [MPP EPWS FI EFPI XS LEPX XLI HIGPMRI SJ TITXMHISJEVSYRHJSVX]EQMRSEGMHW-R%P^LIMQIV´W TEXMIRXW [MXL 4EVOMRWSR´W HMWIEWI XLI HIKIRIVEXMZI patients, two enzymes, beta secretase and gamma disorder of the central nervous system that impairs secretase, effectively cut amyloid beta segments out XLIWYJJIVIV´WQSXSVWOMPPWWTIIGLERHSXLIVJYRGXMSRW2IEVP]  QMPPMSR TISTPI MR XLI 97 EVI PMZMRK [MXL4EVOMRWSR´W HMWIEWI MR  EKEMR [MXL RS ORS[R Several treatments in development are cure but medication or surgery providing relief from XLIW]QTXSQW&]LIEPXLJSVIGEWXWTVIHMGXYT designed either to improve cognition or XS  QMPPMSR TEXMIRXW KPSFEPP] [MXL EVSYRH LEPJ SJ these in China. Following recent campaigns, including IWTIGMEPP] XLI SRI PIH F] XLI EGXSV 1MGLEIP . *S\ -RXLIEVIEWSJFSXL%P^LIMQIV´WERH4EVOMRWSR´WXLI there has been increased investment and focus on new developments on the horizon open the door this disease. The big hope here is that stem cell-based JSVIZIRPSRKIVERHQSVITVSHYGXMZIPMZIW-RFVMRKMRK techniques will play a big part. One approach being mental degradation under the same control as TYVWYIHMR7[IHIRMRZSPZIWXLIVIQSZEPERHGPSRMRK physical, this could provide an end to the increasingly of adult neural cells and coaxing them to become common situation of the mind degrading faster than dopamine-producing neurons for subsequent re- the body – and certainly delay the onset of decline.
implantation into patients. Another study under way EX 3\JSVH 9RMZIVWMX] MW YWMRK MRHYGIH TPYVMTSXIRXWXIQGIPPWXEOIRJVSQETEXMIRX´WWOMRXSKVS[RI[brain neurons. These and similar studies could well It is increasingly probable that by 2020 be the next step in cell replacement therapy for we wil also be able to halt the decline of patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Source: http://www.futureagenda.org/pg/cx/file/320/__PDF_page__.pdf

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Mr Ndiyamba highlights anatomical variation as acause of hand and wrist pain in musicians. This, ofcourse, has been a well-recognized phenomenon inmusicians over the years and there is extensive litera-ture on many of the variations. This literature is wellI read with interest the article in the September issuesummarized by Professor Allieu et al.1 Further com-by Butler and Winspur1 about musi


reactions for some staphylococci and anaerobic species may take up to 60 minutes to develop. For the rapid detection of β-lactamase enzymes in Some strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce isolated colonies of Neisseria gonorrhoeae , small amounts of the β-lactamase enzyme unless Moraxella catarrhalis , Staphylococcus spp., enzyme production is induced by growth in a medium Ha

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