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Josh Newell, Siberia Hotspot Program, Friends of the Earth - Japan
Siberia The term stems from the Tartar word sibir or sleeping land. To foreigners, the name usually refers to
the vast stretch of Russia from the Ural Mountains in the west to the Pacific seacoast in the east. Russians,
however, generally consider Siberia’s eastern edge to be a series of mountain ranges stretching from western
Chita Oblast northward through western Yakutia to the Arctic Ocean. Beyond that lies what Russians call
Dalniy vostok, the Far East.
Russian Far East Geographers disagree on the exact boundaries of the Russian Far East. Some limit the region
to areas affected by the monsoon climate and the Pacific Ocean, i.e., Primorskiy, Khabarovsk, Amur, Sakhalin,
Magadan, Chukotka, and Kamchatka. Others, defining the RFE according to economic ties with the Pacific Rim,
include the Republic of Yakutia and Chita Oblast. For this study, we have chosen to base our definition on areas
that have strong economic ties to the Pacific Rim; therefore, we have included Yakutia, but not Chita Oblast.
Krai, Oblast, Republic, Okrug Administrative divisions of the Russian Federation, similar to states in the U.S.
A republic (such as the Republic of Yakutia) has, however, more autonomy from Moscow and greater
leeway in paying taxes and fees to the capital. Republics are usually set up in regions that have a significant
non-Russian indigenous population. All krais and oblasts technically have the same status with respect to the
federal government, but, in practice, some regions have more autonomy from Moscow than do others.
Primorskiy and Khabarovsk, for example, are strongly aligned with the Pacific Rim as a result of economic ties;
these relationships, coupled with the two regions great geographical distance from Moscow and the relatively
maverick outlook of their governors, have at times caused them to behave completely independently of or even
contrary to federal directives.
Okrugs are administrative subdivisions within oblasts which are set up specifically for indigenous
peoples and generally fall under the jurisdiction of the oblast. However, some are relatively free from oblast
administration. For example, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, in part because of its remoteness from the region
capital, is quickly developing economic ties with Alaska (importing fuel, food, and other essential supplies), and
becoming less influenced by Magadan Oblast politically and economically.
Raion or Rayon Administrative subregion of a krai, oblast, republic, or okrug. Translated in this study as
district, raion is also sometimes translated as county. There are about 25 raions in Primorskiy Krai, fewer in
other regions.
Protected Areas
Zapovednik
A strictly protected nature reserve protected on the federal level. All forms of commercial activity
are prohibited. Human activity is restricted to scientific research and monitoring. Some zapovedniks have small
recreation zones. Zapovedniks are established to protect representative areas of a particular landscape or
bioregion.

Zakaznik
An area set aside for the preservation of smaller ecosystems and/or individual species. Zakazniks
may be protected on the federal or regional level. Restrictions on commercial activities are sometimes only in
effect during certain seasons. Categories of Zakaznik include zoological, botanical, landscape, geological, and
others. Many zakazniks have been established in order to regulate commercial hunting so that viable wildlife
populations may be maintained.
National park (natsionalniy park) A federally protected territory in which small-scale educational, recreational,
and cultural activity as well as scientific research are allowed; usually split into zones of varied status (strictly
protected zones for scientific research, special protection zones, recreation zones, agricultural zones, etc.). Many
national parks are adjacent to or near zapovedniks.
Natural monument (pamyatnik prirody) Protects a single, small landscape feature, e.g., caves, a forest, lake,
waterfall, etc. Usually between 100 and 500 ha. Commercial activity is prohibited by law on the territory.
Territory of traditional nature use (TTPs, from the Russian territoriya traditsional’nogo prirodopol’zovaniya)
Territories set aside for traditional subsistence activities of indigenous peoples.
Russian Red Book The Russian variant of the book by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
(IUCN) listing rare and endangered species of flora and fauna. There are both national and regional Red Data
books in Russia, and the criteria are similar to those used for compiling the IUCN books. Unlike in the U.S., the
listing of a species in the Red Data books guarantees it no legal protection; this listing can be influential,
however, in determining where to create a protected area.
Government Agencies

Committee of Nature Protection and Natural Resource Use (formerly Minpriroda)
Regional Committee of Ecology (Goskompriroda), or Regional Committee of Nature Protection and Natural
Resource Use; answerable to federal Committee of Nature Protection and Natural Resource Use in Moscow
Federal Forest Service (Federalnaya sluzhba lesnogo khozyaistva)
Regional Forest Service (Upravlenie lesami)
Leskhoz A district (raion)-level forest service; administered by the Regional Forest Service.
Lesnichestvo Forest service unit; a subdivision of a leskhoz.
Commercial entities
Gospromkhoz (GPX
) Generic term for locally-based joint-stock corporations (formerly state-run companies)
that process natural resources. There are various gospromkhozy, including lespromkhozy (timber),
mekhpromkhozy (fur), zverpromkhozy (game), rybpromkhozy (fish), and others.
Lespromkhoz (LPX) Local logging enterprise. Some have remain state-owned; others have privatized into
joint-stock companies.
Roslesprom Nationwide conglomerate of lespromkhozy that, although not a governmental agency, has become
the de facto successor to Minlesprom.
Dallesprom A regional timber conglomerate in Khabarovsk and Primorskiy Krais which, while much smaller
than Roslesprom, is highly influential in regional politics as timber is one of the RFE’s economic mainstays.
AO (aktsionernaya obschestvo) Joint-stock (publicly owned) corporation
JV (sovmestnoe predpriyatie) Joint venture (with international partners)
Forestry Terms
Annual Allowable Cut (AAC)
The amount of forest that can be cut in a region without overlogging;
determined by each region’s Forest Inventory Agency.
Bonitet A quality of forest productivity measured on a scale of I-V (I being the highest); bonitet is measured by
the height trees reach after a specific number of years. It is only an estimate, and figures can easily be
manipulated to suit bureaucratic needs or policy priorities.
Broadleaved Deciduous (in Russia, this includes birch, aspen, poplar, oak, ash, alder, willow, etc.)
Forest classification The Russian Forest Service classifies forests by ecological importance using three
categories: Group I (highest); Group II; or Group III to indicate allowable land-use in these forests.
Lesistost’ Percentage of a given territory covered by forest.
ENDANGERED FLORA AND FAUNA OF THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST
Compiled by Alexander Dobrynin from the Russian Red Data Book (1992); translated by Del Note: * = Inexact name; information not available. Amur Oblast
Acipenser medirostris (Sakhalin sturgeon) Actius artemis (Peacock moth) Apatura iris (Purple emperor butterfly) A. schrenckii (Schrenck’s butterfly) Butastur indicus (Buzzard eagle) Ciconia boyciana (Oriental white stork) Coenonympha hero (Hero ringlet butterfly) Cyon alpinus (Red wolf [Asiatic wild dog]) Dahurinaia laevis Falco cherrug (Saker falcon) F. peregrinus (Peregrine falcon) Grus japonensis (Japanese red-crowned crane) G. monacha (Hooded crane) Limnodromus semipalmatus (Asiatic dowitcher) Middendorffinaia mongolica Parnassius eversmanni (Eversmann’s parnassian butterfly) Platalea leucorodia (Spoonbill) Trionyx sinensis (Far Eastern turtle) Kamchatka Oblast
Alopex lagopus semenovi (Eurasian polar fox) Balaena mysticetus (Bowhead whale) Balaenoptera musculus musculus (Blue whale) Ciconia nigra (Black stork) Cygnus bewickii (Bewick’s swan) C. cygnus (Whooper swan) Cyon alpinus (Red wolf [Asiatic wild dog]) Enhydra lutris gracilis (Kurilian sea otter) E. l. lutris (Sea otter) Eschrichtius gibbosus (Gray whale) Eubalaena glacialis japonica (Black right whale) Eurynorhynehus pygmeus (Spoon-billed sandpiper) Falco gyrfalco (Gyrfalcon) F. peregrinus (Peregrine falcon) Grampus griseus (Risso’s dolphin) Haliaeetus pelagicus (Steller’s sea eagle) Megaptera novaeangliae novaeangliae (Humpback whale) ENDANGERED FLORA AND FAUNA OF THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST Mesoplodon stejnegeri (Stejneger’s beaked whale) Monodon monoceros (Narwhal) Ovis canadensis nivicola (Kamchatka bighorn snow sheep) Phoca vitulina stejnegeri (Kuril seal) Sterna camtschatica (Kamchatka tern) Tringa guttifer (Nordmann’s greenshank) Ursus maritimus (Polar bear) Ziphius cavirostris (Cuvier’s beaked whale) Khabarovsk Krai
Acipenser medirostris (Sakhalin sturgeon) Actias artemis (Peacock moth) Aix galericulata (Mandarin duck) Apatura iris (Purple emperor butterfly) A. schrenckii (Schrenck’s emperor butterfly) Apis cerana indica (Indian honey bee) Aythya baeri (Baer’s pochard) Balaenoptera physalus physalus (Finback whale) Brohmaea certhia (Treecreeper) Butastur indicus (Buzzard eagle) Callipagon relictus (Relic gull) Ciconia boyciana (Oriental white stork) Coenonympha hero (Hero ringlet butterfly) Cygnopsis cygnoides (Swan goose) Cygnus cygnus (Whooper swan) Dahurinaia dahurica Epicopeia mencia (Mencia swallow-tail moth) Eubalaena glaeialis japonica (Black right whale) Falcipennis falcipennis (Siberian spruce grouse) Felis euptilura (Far Eastern forest cat) Grus japonensis (Japanese red-crowned crane) G. monacha (Hooded crane) Haliaeetus pelagicus (Steller’s sea eagle) Ketupa blakistoni (Blackiston’s fish owl) Megaptera novaeangliae novaeangliae (Humpback whale) Mergus squamatus (Chinese merganser) Middendorffinaia mongolica Nemorhaedus caudatus (Goral) Nossa palaearctica (Ussurian butterfly) Onychodactylus fischeri (Salamander)* Panthera tigris altaica (Siberian [Amur] tiger) Parnassius eversmanni (Eversmann’s parnassian butterfly) Platalea leucorodia (Spoonbill) Trionyx sinensis (Far Eastern turtle) Ursus maritimus (Polar bear) Ziphius cavirostris (Cuvier’s beaked whale) Magadan Oblast
Coconia nigra (Black stork) Cyon alpinus (Red wolf [Asiatic wild dog]) Diomedea albatrus (Short-tailed albatross) Eschrichtius gibbosus (Gray whale) Eurynorhynchus pygmeus (Spoon-billed sandpiper) Falco peregrinus (Peregrine falcon) Limnodromus semipolmatus (Asiatic dowitcher) Monodon monoceros (Narwhal) Parnassius eversmanni (Eversmann’s parnassian butterfly) Philacte canagica (Emperor goose) Sterna camtschatica (Kamchatka tern) Ursus maritimus (Polar bear) Primorskiy Krai
Acipenser medirostris (Sakhalin sturgeon) Actias artemis (Peacock moth) Aix galericulata (Mandarin duck) Anthocharis scolymus (Scolymus orange-tip butterfly) Apatura iris (Purple emperor butterfly) A. schrenckii (Schrenck’s emperor butterfly) Apis cerana indica (Indian honey bee) Aquila chrysaetos (Golden eagle) Argynnis nerippe (Nerippe fritillary butterfly) A. zenobia (Zenobia fritillary butterfly) Atrophaneura alcinous (Alcinous swallow-tail butterfly) Aythya baeri (Baer’s pochard) Baculum ussurianum (Ussurian tick bug) Boloria hakutozana (Hakutozana fritillary butterfly) Bombus modestus (Modestus bumble bee) B. schrenckii (Schrenck’s bumble bee) B. sporadicus (Sporadicus bumble bee) B. subbaicalensis (Baikhalian bumble bee) Bombyx mandarina (Mandarin silk moth) Brohmaea certhia (Treecreeper) Callipagon relictus (Relic gull) Caloneetris leucomelas (Streaked shearwater) Cervus nippon hortulorum (Sikha deer) Ciconia boyciana (Oriental white stork) Coenonympha hero (Hero ringlet butterfly) Cryptocercus relictus Dahurinaia sujfunensis Diestrammena unicolor (Far Eastern cave grasshopper) Diomedea albatrus (Short-tailed albatross) Egretta eulophotes (Chinese egret) Emberiza jankowskii (Jankowski’s bunting) Epicopeia mencia (Mencia swallow-tail moth) Eurgdoxa advena Falcipennis falcipennis (Siberian spruce grouse) Felis euptilura (Far Eastern forest cat) ENDANGERED FLORA AND FAUNA OF THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST Forficula vicaria (Praying mantis) Gallinago hardwickii (Lathan snipe) Galloisiana kurentzovi Grus japonensis (Japanese red-crowned crane) G. monacha (Hooded crane) G. vipio (White-naped crane) Grylloblattina djakonovi Haliaeetus pelagicus (Steller’s sea eagle) Ixobrychus sinensis (Yellow bittern) Kaniska canace (Japanese mourning butterfly) Ketupa blakistoni (Blackiston’s fish owl) Luehdorfia puziloi (Puzilo’s parnassian butterfly) Lycaenopsis filipjevi (Felipiev’s blue butterfly) Mergus squamatus (Chinese merganser) Middendorffinaia arsenjevi M. dulkeitiana M. hassanica M. martensi M. mongolica M. shadini M. ussuriensis M. weliczkowskii Miniopterus schreibersi (Bat)* Mogera wogura (Japanese mole)* Myotis frater (Feeder bat) Nemorhaedus caudatus (Goral) Nipponia nippon (Japanese crested ibis) Nossa palaearctica (Ussurian butterfly) Oceanodroma monorhis (Swinhoe’s storm petrel) Onychodactylus fischeri (Salamander)* Panthera pardus orientalis (Far Eastern leopard) P. tigris altaica (Siberian [Amur] tiger) Paradoxornis heudei (Chinese crowtit) Parantica sita (Butterfly)* Parnassius eversmanni (Eversmann’s parnassian butterfly) Pipistrellus abramus (Japanese house bat) Porzana exquisita (white-winged crake) Sephisa diehroa (Western courtier butterfly) Sericinus montela (Sericin swallow-tail butterfly) Sorex mirabilis (Shrew)* Tadorna eristata (Common shell duck) Tringa guttifer (Nordmann’s greenshank) Trionyx sinensis (Far Eastern turtle) Ursus tibetanus ussuricus (Himalayan black bear) Republic of YakutiaAquila chrysaetos (Golden eagle) Bombus muscorum (Moss bumble bee)* B. parodoxus (Unusual bumble bee)* Chen caerulescens (Snow goose) Ciconia nigra (Black stork) Cygnus bewickii (Bewick’s swan) Cyon alpinus (Red wolf [Asiatic wild dog]) Falcipennis falcipennis (Siberian spruce grouse) Falco peregrinus (Peregrine falcon) Grus leucogeranus (Siberian crane) G. monacha (Hooded crane) Limnodromus semipalmatus (Asiatic dowitcher) Numenius minutus (Little curlew) Odobenus rosmarus laptevi (Laptev walrus) Pandion haliaetus (Osprey) Parnassius phoedus (Small apollo butterfly) P. tenedius (Eastern Siberian apollo butterfly) Rhodostethia rosea (Ross’s gull) Rufibrenta ruficollis (Red-breasted goose) Ursus maritimus (Polar bear) Sakhalin Oblast
Acipenser medirostris (Sakhalin sturgeon) Actias artemis (Peacock moth) Aix galericulata (Mandarin duck) Anatogaster siebaldi Balaena mysticetus (Bowhead whale) Balaenoptera borealis borealis (Sei whale) B. musculus musculus (Blue whale) B. physalus physalus (Finback whale) Ciconia nigra (Black stork) Cygnus bewickii (Bewick’s swan) C. cygnus (Whooper swan) Dahurinaia laevis Diomedea albatrus (Short-tailed albatross) Elaphe climacophora (Japanese rat snake) E. japonica (Japanese elaphe [snake]) E. quadrivirgata Enhydra lutris gracilis (Sea otter) Erebia niphonica (Niphon alpine butterfly) Eubalaena glacialis japonica (Black right whale) Eumeces latiscutatus (Far Eastern skink) Falcipennis falcipennis (Siberian spruce grouse) Gallinago hardwickii (Lathan’s snipe) Grampus griseus (Risso’s dolphin) Haliaeetus pelagicus (Steller’s sea eagle) Ixobrychus sinensis (Yellow bittern) Ketupa blakistoni (Blackiston’s fish owl) Lethe diana (Brown butterfly) Magaptera novaeangliae novaeangliae (Humpback whale) Mesoplodon stejnegeri (Stejneger’s beaked whale) Moschus moschiferus sachalinensis (Musk deer) Neope goschkevitschii Parus varius (Varied tit) Passer rutilans (Cinnamon sparrow) ENDANGERED FLORA AND FAUNA OF THE RUSSIAN FAR EAST Phoca vitulina stejnegeri (Kuril seal) Pipistrellus abramus (Japanese house bat) Pseudorca crassidens (False killer whale) Sinchula callipteris Sterna camtschatica (Kamchatka tern) Tringa guttifer (Nordmann’s greenshank) Ziphius cavirostris (Cuvier’s beaked whale) Flora Note: Numbers correspond to a Red Data Book code - 0 = highest; 5 = lowest. Amur Oblast
Brasenia schreberi (Water-shield), 1 Euryale ferox (Prickly waterlily), 1 Nelumbo nucifera (Lotus), 1 Pentaghylloides mandshurica, 1 Kamchatka Oblast
Abies gracilis (Fir), 1 Fimbristylis ochotemisis, 1 Khabarovsk Krai
Bergenia pacifica (Pacific moench), 1 Brasenia schreberi (Water-shield), 1 Gastrodia elata, 2 Microdiota decussater, 2 Nelumbo nucifera (Lotus), 1 Panax ginseng (Ginseng), 1 Pentaghylloides mandshurica, 1 Primorskiy Krai
Apelopsis japonica (Japanese apelopsis), 1 Aristolochia monshuriansis (Manchurian birthwort), 1 Aruncus parvulus (Little goat’s beard), 1 Belamcanda chinensis (Leopard flower), 0 Bergenia pacifica (Pacific moench), 1 Betula schmidtii (Schmidt’s birch), 3 Brasenia schreberi (Water-shield), 1 Bupleurum euphordioides (Hare’s ear), 1 Ephedra monosperma (Joint fir), 1 Eriocaulon chinorossicum (Pipewort), 1 E. robustius (Pipewort), 1 Gastrodia elata, 2 Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora, 1 Hedysarum ussuriense, 1 Juniperus rigida (Needle juniper), 2 Kalopanax septemlobus, 2 Megadenia speluncarum, 1 Microdiota decussater, 2 Mimulus stolonifer (Monkey flower), 1 Nelumbo nucifera (Lotus), 1 Oplopanax elatus, 3 Panax ginseng (Ginseng), 1 Parthenocissus tricuspidata, 1 Pentaghylloides mandshurica, 1 Princepia sinensis, 2 Pueraria lobata (Kudzu vine), 3 Sanguisorba magnifica (Magnificent burnet), 1 Scilla scilloides (Chinese, Japanese jacinth), 0 Thymus mandskurias (Thyme), 1 Viola hirtipes (Violet), 1 Weigela praecox, 1 Sakhalin Oblast
Artemisia limosa (Mugwort), 1 Betula maximowicziana (Regel birch), 1 Bothrocaryum controversum, 1 Cardiocrinum glehnii, 1 Choranthus serratus, 1 Dioscorea tenuipes, 1 Erythronium japonicum (Adder’s tongue), 1 Gastrodia elata, 2 Gentiana sugawarae (Gentian), 1 Ilex sugerokii (Holly), 2 Iris maackii (Iris), 1 Kalopanax septemlobus, 2 Magnolia obovata, 1 Pulsatilla sachalinensis, 0 Rhododendron fauriei (French rhododendron), 2 Skimmia repens (Nakai), 4 Wasabia japonica, 1 Miscellaneous
List of Zapovedniks in the Russian Far East List of Zapovedniks in the Russian Far East
Date Established
Area (ha.)
Contract Address


Primorskiy Region

1. Khasanskiy
Primorye Region
Dalniy, Spassk Raion, Primorskiy Krai, 692240

2. Lazovskiy
Primorskiy Region
120,000 ha. 56 Centralnaya, Lazo, Lazovskiy Raion, Primorskiy Krai, 692890 Tel; 42377-91136 Fax: 91137 E-mail:
root@lazozap.marine.su
3. Sikhote-Alinskiy
reserve Ternei, Primorskiy Krai 692150, Tel: 42374-91559, 91365, e-mail: sixote@glas.apc.org
4. Far Eastern State Marine Reserve
including 63,000 ha. of marine reserve 1 Palchevskogo, Vladivostok, 6940041 Tel/fax: 4232-310900
5. Kedrovaya Pad
Primorskaya, Khasanskiy Raion, Primorskiy Krai, 692710 wood.X400.rosprint.ru;
6. Ussuriskiy
19 Nekrasova, Ussurisk, Primorskiy Krai, 692532
Note: Last three zapovedniks are administered by the Russian Academy of Sciences, Far Eastern
Branch.

Khabarovsk Region

7. Bol’shekhekhtsirskiy
C/O Bichikha, 8 Ubileinaya Street, Khabarovsk Krai 682302 Tel: 4212-97-44-38 E-mail:
sciens@rezerve.khv.ru
8. Botchi
Sovetskaya, 28-b, Sovetskaya-Gavan, Khabarovsk Krai, 682303

9. Bureinskiy
Khabarovsk Region
44 Krasnoarkieskaya Street, Chegdomin, Upper-Bureinskiy raion, Khabarovsk Krai, 682080 Tel:
42149-52951
10. Dzhurdzhurskiy Khabarovsk Region
reserve
Ayan, Khabarovsk Region, 682470 Tel; 213-71

11.
Komsomolskiy
Shosse, Komsolmoslk-on-Amur, Khabarovsk Krai, 681019
Sakhalin Region

12. Kurilskiy
Sakhalin Region
Yuzhno-Kurilsk, Yuzhno-Kuriskiy Raion, Sakhalin Oblast, 694500 Tel: 42455-21586 Fax:
21394 E-mail: magnoliy@sakhalin.ru

13. Poronaiskiy

Sakhalinskaya Oblast, 694220

Jewish Autonomous Region

14.
Bastak Jewish Autonomous Region
None given
Amur Region

15.
Khinganskiy Amur Region 1963
Zeiskiy Amur Region 1963
71 Stroitelnaya Street, Zeya, Amurskaya Oblast, Tel: (41658) ‚Äď 21379, 21753
Kamchatka Region

17. Kommandorskiy Kamchatka Region
marine reserve
18 Beringa Street, Nikolskoye City, Aleutskiy raion, Kamchatka Oblast, 684500
18. Kronotskiy
48 Ryabikov Street, Yelizovo, Kamchatka Oblast, 684010 zapved@elrus.kamchatka.su
Koryak Autonomous Region

19. Koryakskiy
8 Naberezhnaya, Tilichiki, Aleutskiy rain, Koryaksiy Auntonomous Okrug, 684800

Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)

20. Olemkimskiy
Olekminsk, Republic of Sakha, 678100 Tel: 41138-21032, 21482
21. Ust-Lenskiy
Tiksi, Bulunskiy raion, Republic of Sakha, 678400, Tel: 41167-53939, e-mail:
lena@tiksi.rospac.ru
Magadan Region

List of Zapovedniks in the Russian Far East 22. Magadanskiy
41322-23611, Fax: 20071
Chukotka Region

23. Wrangel Island
Ushakovskoye, Schmidtovskiy Raion, Chukotskiy AO, 686870 Source: Biodiversity Conservation Center, Moscow, 1997. Translated by Josh Newell METHODOLOGY TO IDENTIFY THE BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS A joint project of IUCN-The World Conservation Union and Siberia Hotspot Program at
Friends of the Earth-Japan
Summary The 59 ‚ÄėHotspots‚Äô identified are the result of more than 12 months of regional roundtables in all ten administrative subdivisions of the RFE. At these roundtables, representatives from regional administrations, nature protection agencies, scientific institutes, and non-governmental organizations met to identify and agree on 5-7 priority territories for biodiversity conservation ('Hotspots') in their respective region. The primary criteria for choosing these priorities were: 1. Presence of rare and endangered plant and animal species or
endemic species
2. Existing and projected threats from industrial development
3. Level of ecosystem fragility
4. Importance for traditional land-use by indigenous peoples
5. Poorly studied areas that could be considered as meeting criteria 1,2,
3, and/or 4 above

The procedure for reaching consensus began with presentations by all invited specialists who described and supported the inclusion of one or more territories to the list. Then, on the basis of the criteria outlined above, specialists nominated and explained the reasons for the five areas they felt best suited the criteria. Finally, the selections were tallied and the 5-7 (in case of ties) 'Hotspots' receiving the most votes were put forth for final approval by the roundtable participants; these expert teams are listed in the following pages/ to the right of this text. The complete results of these roundtables are published in the survey, "Priority Territories (Hotspots) for Biodiversity Conservation in the Russian Far East", which is now available in Russian and will soon be available in Japanese and English. To announce the findings of the Hotspot roundtables, to develop protection strategies, and to make recommendations for sustainable development of the Region, Friends of the Earth-Japan, IUCN, and the Republic of Sakha Government held an international conference in Yakutsk, Russia in June 1998. Attendees at this conference unanimously agreed to endorse these Hotspots and developed a number of concrete resolutions on environmental policy, forest use, investment policy, and natural resource management. Since June, more than 45 international NGOs have also endorsed the conference resolution. METHODOLOGY TO IDENTIFY THE BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS Russian Far East Biodiversity Hotspot List

Note: Hotspots are not listed in order of priority
Krai, Oblast, Republic, Okrug: Administrative subdivisions of the Russian Federation
zapovednik: strict nature reservezakaznik: wildlife refuge

Note: Forest Hotspots are listed in bold.
Primorye
1. Samarga River Basin (forest)
2. Middle and Upper Bikin River Basin (forest/wetland)
3. Middle -Ussuriiskiy National Park (forest)
4. Upper-Ussuriiskiy National Park (forest)
5. Southwest Primorye region [including Khasanskiy Nature Park,

Barsoviy Zakaznik, Borisovskoye Plateau Zakaznik] (forest/wetland)

Khabarovsk

6. Anyuiskiy National Park (forest)
7. Matai Zakaznik (forest)
8. Nedostupniye Lakes Zakaznik (wetland)
9. Pikhtsa-Tigroviy Dom Zakaznik (forest/wetland)
10. Gur-Khoso Zakaznik (forest)

11. Shantar Islands Zakaznik (wetland/marine)
Note: None are established reserves

Sakhalin
12. Pursh-Pursh and Vengeri River Basins (forest)
13.
Coastal Bays of Northeastern Sakhalin (wetland/marine)
14. Anna, Sima, and Bukhara River Basins (forest)
15. Schmidt Peninsula (forest)
16. Krilyon Peninsula (forest)
17.
Nevskoye Lake (wetland)
18. Vaida Mountain (forest)
Amur
19. Arkhainskaya Lowland and Little Khingan Range (forests/wetland)
20.
Southern part of the Zeisko-Bureinskaya Plain (wetland)
21. Mukhinka Drainage Basin (forest)
22. Between the Nora and Selemdzha Rivers (forest/wetland)
23. Mountains surrounding Zeiskoye Reservoir (forest)
24. Nyukzhinskiy Ridge and Amur Pinelands (forest)
Jewish Autonomous Oblast
25.
Zabelovskiy Area (wetland)
26. Stolbovskoy Area (wetland)
27. Pompeyevskiy Area (wetland/forest)
28. "
Bastak" State Zapovednik
29. "Kuldur" Nature Park (forest)

Kamchatka
30. Bystrinskiy Nature Park (forest)
31. "Conifer Island" (forest)
32. Kronotskiy Biosphere Zapovednik (forest/wetland)
33.
Komandorskiy Zapovednik (marine)
34.
Avachinskaya Bay (wetland/marine)
Koryakia
35.
North Ayakinskiy Zakaznik (wetland/arctic)
36. Parapolskiy Valley (wetland/arctic)
37.
Karaginskiy Island Zakaznik (marine)
38. Palanskoye Lake Zakaznik (wetland)
39. Rivers in Tigilskiy region (wetland/tundra)
40. Koryak offshore zone of the Sea of Okhotsk (marine)
41. Buffer Zone of Koryakskiy Zapovednik (wetland/tundra)

Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
42. Sub-tundra forests of Northern Sakha (arctic/forest)
43.
Vilyui River Basin
44. Between the Lena and Amga Rivers (forest/wetland)
45. Between the Aldan and Uchur Rivers (arctic/forest)
46.Tuimaada Valley (forest/wetland)
Magadan
47. Magadanskiy Zapovednik (wetland/forest/marine)
48. Tauskaya Bay (marine/wetland)
49. Khasyn River Basin (wetland)
50. Gizhiginskaya Bay (wetland)
51. Odyan and Kavinskaya Valley Zakazniks (wetland)
52. Ola River Basin (wetland)

Chukotka
53. Lower Anadyr Lowlands (arctic/wetland)
54. Omolonskiy Zakaznik (arctic/tundra)
55. Southeast Coast of Chaunskaya Bay (marine/wetland)
56. Meinypilgynskaya Riparian zone (including coast) (arctic/wetland)
57. Walrus rookeries (arctic/marine)
58. Lake Elgygytgyn depression (arctic/wetland)
59. Botanical natural monuments (arctic)


METHODOLOGY TO IDENTIFY THE BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS Russian Far East Expert Team

The following specialists identified and adopted the biodiversity hotspots listed above at regional
roundtables held throughout the Russian Far East from 1997 to 1998.
Primorskiy Region
Adopted by:
Lebedev A.,
Director, Bureau of Regional Public Campaigns (Regional Co-coordinator) Karakin V.,
Pacific Institute of Geography (Regional Co -coordinator)
Aramilev V.,
Aramileva T.,
Ashchepkov A.,
Bersenev Yu.,
Chief Specialist, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Bocharnikov V.,
Pacific Institute of Geology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Far East Department Chisholm B.J.,
Dikun T.,
Dyukarev V.,
Fomenko P.,
Gaponov V.,
Committee on Natural Resources, Primorskiy Regional Administration Kabalik L.,
Rosenberg V.,
Seledets V.,
Solkin V.,
Vorobyeva T.,

Khabarovsk Region
Adopted by:
Kulikov A.N.,
Chairman, Khabarovsk Wildlife Foundation (Regional Co-coordinator) Voronov B.A.,
Director, Institute of Water and Ecological Problems Regional Co-coordinator)
Balaganskiy N.M.,
Bolshova N.V.,
Director, Environmental Information Agency, Khabarovsk Wildlife Foundation Darenskiy A.A.,
Director, Far East Branch, All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Hunting and Animal Husbandry Efimov N.N.,
Deputy Director, Office of Nature Use Economics and Policy, Department of Natural Resources and Extractive Industries, Khabarovsk Regional Administration Kolomytsev V.M.,
Deputy Director, Regional Forest Service Kryukov V.G.,
Deputy Director, Dept. of Natural Resources and Extractive Industries, Khabarovsk Regional Admin. Sapaev V.M.,
Senior Researcher, Institute of Water and Ecological Problems Skachkov V.B.,
Deputy Chairman, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Shlotgauer S.D.,
Head of Laboratory, Institute of Water and Ecological Problems
Sakhalin Region

Adopted by:
Lisitsyn D.V.,
Chairman, Sakhalin Environment Watch (Regional Coordinator)
Fedorchuk V.D.,
Labai V.S.,
Sakhalin Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography Klitin A.K.,
Sakhalin Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography Kozlov V.A.,
Makeev S.S.,
Anivskaya Observation Station, Sakhalin Fisheries Inspectorate Revyakina Z.V.,
Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Romanova A.Y.,
Sabirov N.R.,
Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics Sankova O.A.,
Semenov E.V.,
Skalchinskiy V.M.,
Solovyev A.V.,
Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics Taran A.A.,
Zdornov I.G.,

Amur Region
Adopted by:
Darman Y.A.,

Director, Socio-Ecological Union, Amur Branch (Regional coordinator)
Andronov V.A. ,

Artyomov V.V. ,
Head, Dept. of Flora and Fauna Protection, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Faizulin V.V.,
Director, Botanical Garden, Amur Research Center Grekhovodov V.F.,
Ivanov G.N.,
Chairman, Permanent Commission on Agricultural Policy, Nature Use, and Ecology of the Amur Kabatov F.I. ,
Chief Specialist, Committee on Nature Use and Mining Industry, Amur Regional Administration Koval A.T. ,
Chairman, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Luzhnov V.L.,
Deputy Chairman, Regional Committee on Natural Resources Nosovtsev G.M.,
Head, Department of Environmental Assessment, Control, and Protection of Natural Resources, Committee on Nature Use and Mining Industry, Amur Regional Administration Sakovich I.G. ,
Director, "Amur-Batyushka" Center for Support of NGOs and Environmental Awareness Stamikov B.A.,
Deputy Director, Regional Game Commission Surovegin A.N.,
Deputy Head, Amur Regional Administration Shestakov G.V.,
Deputy Chairman, Regional Committee on Land Resources and Land Management Veriga G.S.,
Deputy Director, Regional Forestry Service METHODOLOGY TO IDENTIFY THE BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS Jewish Autonomous Region
Adopted by:
Gorobeiko, V.V,

Director, "Bastak" Ecological Initiative Center (Regional Coordinator)
Akhmadulin V.A., Deputy Director for Science, Regional Institute of Complex
Belonogova N.A.,
Deputy Chairperson, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Dementyev A.E.,
Kalinin A.Y.,
Director, "Bastak" State zapovednik Kruglenko A.A.,
Head, Department of Land Management, Regional Committee on Land Mokrov S.A.,
Chief Inspector, Regional Fisheries Protection Service Mrischuk S.M.,
Head, Department of Nature Use, Economic Agency, Government of Mukhomedyarova A.R.,
Chief Specialist, Regional Committee on Environmental Nikitinskiy V.M.,
Panevin V.M.,
Chairman, Hunters and Fishermens Society Rubtsova T.A.,
Chief Lecturer, Blagoveshchensk State Pedagogical Institute Sukhomlinov N.R., Researcher, Laboratory of Social Systems, Regional Inst. of Complex
Sukhomlinova V.V., Head, Laboratory of Social Systems, Regional Institute of Complex
Ulanov V.V.,
Department Head, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Yakimov S.P.,
Chairman, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Yakovleva E.M.,
Researcher, Lab. of Bioresources and Ecology, Regional Inst. of Complex
Kamchatka Region
Adopted by:
Chernyagina O.A.,
Staff researcher, Kamchatka Institute of Ecology and Nature Use
Avdeiko G.P.,
Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry Aliskerov A.A.,
Berezovskaya V.,
Bondarev V.A.,
Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Devyatkin G.P.
Dmitriev V.D.,
Kamchatka Representative, Petrovskaya Academy of Arts and Sciences Doronina N.P.,
"Alnei" Club, Council Member, All-Russian Society for Nature Edlund, Julie,
Pacific Environment and Resources Center Ignatenko L.G.,
Chairperson, "ALESKAM" Native People Community Karpukhin N.S., Regional Committee on Environmental Protection
Kazakov N.V.,
Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Khvorostov V.P.,
Klochkova N.G.,
Kamchatka Institute of Ecology and Nature Use Lazarev G.A.
Director, Kamchatka Forest Experimental Station Lobkov E.G.,
Menshikov V.I.,
Director, Directorate of Nature Parks of Kamchatka Oblast Mosolov V.I.,
Orlov A.A.,
Skorobogatsko L.N., Director, Public Association "Garmoniya"
Trubitsyn S.M.,
Upryamov V.E., Kamchatka Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography
Verecheva P.E., Kamchatka Regional Committee on Environmental Protection

Koryak Region
Adopted by:
Chernyagina O.A.
Staff Researcher, Kamchatka Institute of Ecology and Nature Use (Regional Coordinator)
Abramov S.E.,
Deputy Chairman, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Baranov A.V.,
Chief Specialist, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Gridyaev A.L.,
Chief Specialist, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Grigoryev V.T.,
Acting Chairman, Regional Committee on Land Resources Grishenev N.K.,
Committee Chairman, Koryak Regional Duma Gusak L.F.,
Chief Specialist, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Khamidullina L.G.,
Chief Specialist, Regional Committee on Land Resources, Representative of Regional Association of Native Small-Numbered Peoples of the North Kochnev E.E.,
Deputy Chairman, Committee on Development of Fuel and Energy Kolpakova A.V.,
Chief Specialist, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Lipatova L.P.,
Department Head, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Malyshev S.E.,
Deputy Director, Regional Game Commission Meshalkin A.B.,
Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in the Koryak Autonomous okrug Morgun A.P.,
Pepe Z.P.,
Department Head, Regional Committee on Land Resources Rogaleva M.V.,
Smyshlyaev A.,
Tsulya I.G.,
Chairman, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection
Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
Adopted by:
Isaev A.P.,
Forestry Group Head, Institute of Biological Problems of the Permafrost Zone (Regional Coordinator)
Desyatkin R.V.,
Laboratory Director, Institute of Biological Problems of Permafrost Egorova L.P.,
Ecological Center NGO, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) Pavlov N.P.,
Committee to Save the Vilyui River Basin Popov V.F.,
Chief Lecturer, Yakutsk State University Sedelnik N.D.,
Chief Forester, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) Shmatkova L.E.,
Deputy Minister of Nature Protection of the Rep ublic of Sakha (Yakutia) Shurduk I.F.,
Senior Staff Researcher, Institute of Biological Problems of the Timofeev P.A.,
METHODOLOGY TO IDENTIFY THE BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS
Magadan Region
Adopted by:
Krechmar M.A.,
Institute of Biological Problems of the North (Regional Coordinator)
Bekhteev V.I.,
Berman D.I.,
Institute of Biological Problems of the North Devyatkin G.V.,
Deputy Director, Magadanskiy State zapovednik Dubinin V.A.,
Institute of Biological Problems of the North Frunza M.V.,
Deputy Director, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Khabarova A.K.,
Chairperson, Regional Association of Native Small-Numbered Peoples of the North Klimenko T.G.,
Deputy Director, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Kondratev A.Y.,
Institute of Biological Problems of the North Kondratev A.V.,
Deputy Director, Institute of Biological Problems of the North Koravye D.P.,
Chief, Department on Indigenous People's Affairs, Magadan Regional Administration Kozlov V.K.,
Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Kryuchkov A.S.,
Mikhailov N.G.,
Director, Arctic Agricultural Research Institute Proskurina N.S.,
Director, Magadan Center for the Environment Skrylev S.V.,
Deputy Director, Regional Marine Inspection Service Solovei V.A.,
Vedernikov I.,
Assistant to the Committee on Geology, Magadan Regional Duma Vitko I.A.,
Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Zamoshch M.I.,
Chief, Laboratory of Disturbed Landscapes, Eastern Scientific Research Inst. on Gold and Rare Metals

Chukotka Region
Adopted by:
Smirnov G.P.,
Chairman, "Kaira Club" Environmental NGO (Regional Coordinator)
Achirgina T.Y.,
Vice-President, Association of Chukotka Eskimos Ekelkut V.I.,
Chairperson, Working Group on Environmental Protection, Regional Association of Native Small-Numbered Peoples of the North Galanin A.A.,
Director, Laboratory of Evolution of Biological and Geological Systems of Beringia, "Chukotka" Research Center Korogod N.A.,
Korotaev Y.A.,
Staff Researcher, Pacific Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography Litovka V.V.,
Executive Director, "Kaira Club" Environmental NGO Maltse va L.P.,
Chief Staff Researcher, Chukotka Natural History Museum Melnikova T.A.,
Chief Specialist on Fisheries, Department of Agriculture, Chukotka Regional Administration Mironenko O.N.,
Director, State Land Cadaster, Regional Committee on Land Resources Naumkin D.V.,
Staff Researcher, Pacific Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography Ogorodnikova E.V., Consultant, Committee on Natural Resources and Ecology, Regional
Oschepkova E.V.,
Staff Researcher, Pacific Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography Ovcharov G.S.,
Head, Department of Water Resources, Regional Committee on Natural Resources Petrenko E.P.,
Director, "Chukotka" Research Center Riga I.G.,
Staff Researcher, Chukotka Natural History Museum Seifullaev B.A.,
Deputy Director, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Shevchenko E.P.,
Chief Inspector, Regional Fisheries Inspectorate Shevchenko N.G.,
Department Head, Regional Committee on Environmental Protection Tregubov O.D.,
Director, Laboratory of Geo-ecology, "Chukotka" Research Center Tikhomirov Y.B.,
Chief Geologist, Regional Committee on Natural Resources Tynankergav G.A.,
Chairperson, Committee on Natural Resources and Ecology, Regional

Source: http://www.gef.or.jp/activity/forest/world/report/H10report/3add.pdf

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