Microsoft word - hormone replacement therapy1.doc

Michael P. Osborne, MD
The Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) found no overall reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in postmenopausal women who had a prior diagnosis of CHD. The trial randomized 2763 postmenopausal women with CHD to ~4 years of HRT or placebo. There were no significant overall decreases in further CHD events in women assigned to HRT. However, it was observed that women on HRT had an increased rate of CHD events in the first year and decreased risk during years 3-
5; these lower rates did not persist after stopping HRT in the further 2.7 years of follow- Adverse effects of HRT included an increased rate of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, as well as biliary tract surgery for gallstones. Overall, there were 261 deaths in those on HRT and 239 among those on placebo. On July 17th, the Journal of the American Medical Association reported the results of the Women’s Health Initiative. The study had enrolled 16,000 healthy postmenopausal women who were randomly assigned to HRT with either estrogen and progesterone or placebo. After 5 years, it was found that those on HRT had an additional increased rate of breast cancer of (8/10,000 women), stroke (8/10,000 women), blood clots to the lung (18/10,000 women) and heart attack (7/10,000 women) when compared to placebo. HRT reduced the rate of colon cancer (6/10,000 women) and hip fractures (5/10,000 women). These risks and benefits work out unfavorably for HRT. The study was therefore stopped and the participants were told to stop taking their medication. Another study is ongoing evaluating the safety of estrogen alone in women who have had a hysterectomy. To date, no increase in breast cancer has been observed but the study has It is important to note that the only effective treatment for menopausal symptoms is estrogen. It is reasonable to take estrogen for symptoms that interfere with the quality of life for about five years. After five years, consideration should be given to tapering off estrogen in consultation with your physician. Prevention of osteoporosis can be accomplished with dietary supplementation of calcium and Vitamin D, weight bearing exercises and bisphosphonates Fosamax, Aredia or Evista. The prevention of heart disease can be accomplished by aerobic exercise, diet, weight and blood pressure control, and, if necessary, control of cholesterol and lipoproteins using statins (Lipitor, Prevacid, Proscar, Pravachol). It has recently been reported that raloxifene (Evista) can also reduce the chances if heart attack in women who are at increased risk. References: Barrett-Connor E et al. Raloxifene and cardiovascular events in osteoporotic postmenopausal women: four year results from the MORE (Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation) randomized trial. JAMA 2002; 287:847-857. Grady D et al. Cardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy. JAMA 2002;288:49-59. Hulley S et al. Noncardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy. JAMA 2002;288:58-66.


Human Values as Normative Propositions Behind Design of Pharmacotherapy Processes A conversational workshop jointly sponsored by: Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, Joint Centre for Bioethics, Knowledge Media Design Institute Monday, March 12, 4:00-6:00 pm Leslie Dan Building, 144 College St, rm B150 to be followed by reception in Leslie Dan Bldg Atrium 6:00-7:00 pm co

Microsoft word - ester.rtf

Est 1 1 Y aconteció en los días de Asuero (el Asuero que reinó desde la India hasta la Etiopía sobre ciento veintisiete provincias), 2 que en aquellos días, cuando se asentó el rey Asuero sobre el trono de su reino, el cual estaba en Susa, el palacio, 3 en el tercer año de su reinado hizo banquete a todos sus príncipes y siervos, teniendo delante de él la fuerza de Persia y de Medi

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