The Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association
Vol. 6, No. 4, Fall 2003

Magnesium, Feverfew, and Riboflavin:
Therapeutic Use in Migraine Prevention
Lisa Colodny, Pharm D,1,2 Nordia Bryan, PharmD Candidate,1 Samantha Luong, PharmD Candidate,1 Jennifer Rooney, PharmD Candidate1 1. Department of Pharmacy, Coral Springs Medical Center, Coral Springs, Florida 2. Associate Clinical Professor, School of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University, Case Reports on Patients Diagnosed with
Migraine and Placed on A Nutraceutical
Product Containing Riboflavin, Magnesium
and Feverfew
Certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology the American Board of Holistic Medicine, and the American Society of Neurorehabilitation A Peer-Reviewed Journal on Nutraceuticals and Nutrition
Mark Houston, M.D.
Compliments of PR Osteo, LLC
Reprinted with permission from the Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association. Duplication in whole or part is not permitted without permission.
Magnesium, Feverfew, and Riboflavin:
Therapeutic Use in Migraine Prevention
Lisa Colodny, Pharm D,1,2 * Nordia Bryan, PharmD Candidate,1 Samantha Luong, PharmD Candidate,1 Jennifer Rooney, PharmD Candidate1 1. Department of Pharmacy, Coral Springs Medical Center, Coral Springs, Florida 2. Associate Clinical Professor, School of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University, Approximately 28 to 32 million Americans suffer from nial vessels that leads to a decrease in blood flow to the migraine headaches. The majority of these are women brain, which may induce periods of low oxygenation that between the ages of 22 and 35 years. Although the causes of can result in neurologic disjunction. Decreased oxygenation migraine headaches are not clearly understood, it is believed may be associated with the aura that is experienced in about to result from interplay between the brain tissue and the cir- 10% of migraine sufferers. Migraine auras manifest as per- culatory system supplying the central nervous system.
ceptions of flashing lights, partial field of vision loss, unilat- In a survey study of 20,000 individuals, about two-thirds eral numbness, weakness, or speech difficulty.
of those who met the criteria for migraine, self-treated with About 85% of patients will report migraine without over-the-counter (OTC) drugs to the exclusion of prescription aura. This most common type of migraine lasts about 4–72 medications.1 The desirability of prevention is clear to health- hours, and is aggravated by physical activity, occurs unilat- care professionals and patients alike. In addition to obvious erally, and can be of moderate to severe intensity. Nausea, financial savings that effective prevention would generate, vomiting, photophobia, and or phonophobia may also occur.
medical effects of medication leading to rebound headaches The initial vasospasm of the cerebral event is believed could potentially be reduced as well.
to be mediated by the concentration of prostaglandins andother CNS neurotransmitters, including serotonin. In con- PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF MIGRAINE
trast, neurogenic inflammation is mediated by vasoactiveneuroproteins. The pain associated with migraine headache The induction of the migraine appears to be triggered by usually occurs as a result of cerebral vasodilation and neu- interactions between precipitating events and specific brain rogenic inflammation that follows a period of decreased areas. These events appear to induce constriction of the cra- oxygenation. (Figure 1)
Figure 1. Vasodilation of the cerebral vessels may result in
migraine-related pain.
Prostaglandins and other
CNS neurotransmitters
3000 Coral Hills DriveCoral Springs, FlPhone: 954-344-3131 Fax: 954-346-4224E-mail: Lcolodny@nbhd.org MIGRAINE
Psychological factors such as stress and depression have Inhibition of platelet aggregation and secretion
been associated with the onset of migraine, as have envi- Feverfew has been found to inhibit platelet aggregation ronmental factors like smoke, light, and weather changes.
by inhibiting thromboxane synthesis, which occurs via inac- The consumption of large amounts of alcohol, citrus fruits, tivation of cellular phospholipases.6-8 Numerous studies have aspartame, chocolate, and caffeine may also trigger shown that feverfew extract inhibits aggregation and secre- episodes. A number of medications have also been associat- tion of intracellular granules caused by aggregating agents ed with migraine-related headaches. These include Tagamet, such as adrenalin, collagen, and adenosine diphosphate.8 Pondium, Prozac, Premarin, Indocin, nicotine, nitroglycerin,oral contraceptives, reserpine, and ethinyl estradiol.4 Inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes
Feverfew extract inhibits the secretory activity of poly- morphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), showing a much greater FEVERFEW
inhibition of PMNs granule release than do high concentra- Feverfew, Tanacetum partheium, member of the Compositae or daisy family, is native to the Balkan moun- Smooth muscle
tains in Europe and can now be found in Australia, China,Japan, North and South American, and North America.2 Its Sesquiterpene lactones, particularly parthenolide, have use as an herbal remedy dates back 2,000 years.14 Feverfew spasmolytic properties that cause smooth muscle to become currently is used for migraine headache prophylaxis and to less responsive to endogenous substances such as acetyl- choline, noradrenaline, bradykinin, prostaglandins, hista-mine, and serotonin. These findings can be linked to an Chemistry
anti-migraine effect through inhibition of the influx of cal- • Sesquiterpene lactones: parthenolides, canin, artecanin, Contraindication
Feverfew is contraindicated in people who may be • Flavonoid glycosides: luteolin, tanetin, apigenin, 6- allergic to other members of the Compositae or daisy fam- ily, such as chamomile, ragweed, or yarrow. It should not be • Sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes: camphor, borneol, ger- used during pregnancy or by lactating mothers, or by chil- dren under two years old. Because parthenolide affects • Other: polyacetylenes, pyrethrin, melatonin, tannins, platelet aggregation in some in vitro studies, caution may be appropriate for patients with bleeding disorders or those The leaf is used for medicinal purposes. The most active component of feverfew is parthenolide, the most Drug Interactions
NSAIDs may alter the efficacy of feverfew. The plants’ Mechanism of Action
mechanism of action (mainly inhibition of platelet aggrega- The exact mechanism of action of feverfew is tion) may interact with anticoagulants and antiplatelets unknown; however, there are several proposed mechanisms: inhibition of serotonin release, inhibition of prostaglandin Adverse Effects
synthesis, inhibition of platelet aggregation and secretion, The most common reported side effects of feverfew inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte degranulation, consumption are GI disturbances after oral ingestion inhibition of phagocytosis of human neutrophils, inhibition including diarrhea, heartburn, bloating and flatulence.
of mast-cell release of histamine, cytotoxic activity against Mouth ulcers, lip swelling, and tongue irritation can occur human tumor cells, and antimicrobial activity; it also has when one chews fresh leaves.2 When feverfew is discontin- ued after use of six months or more, people may experience Inhibition of serotonin release
rebound headache, stiffness in joints and muscles, nervous- The active moiety in feverfew (parthenolide) inhibits ness, anxiety and insomnia, responses known as “post- the release of serotonin from blood platelets, similar to the action of methysergide, an ergot alkaloid.3 This mechanism explains the therapeutic benefit of feverfew for migraine.5,12 Currently there are no precise dosing recommenda- Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis
tions, and doses vary. However, the Canadian Health The interference of phospholipase A by the plant causes Protection Branch recommends 125 mg of feverfew daily, inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis.10 In a study reported containing at least 0.2% parthenolide (the active compo- in 1985, feverfew decreased prostaglandin production by nent) in each dosage unit.2,3,5 Feverfew dosage is general- 86–88%, but cyclooxygenase inhibition was unaffected.4 ly based on the weight of the leaves. Commonly-used doses vascular resistance is well known.15 About 65–70% of serum magnesium is ionized, while the rest is protein-bound and complexed to small anion ligands.2 Many stud- • Dried powdered leaves: 50–250 mg daily or 125–250 mg ies of the role that magnesium plays in the pathogenesis of daily in two divided doses for migraine prophaylaxis migraines have examined the total body supply of intracel- • In the UK and Canada, feverfew products are standardized lular magnesium. these conflicting results may be due to the fact that even though total intracellular magnesium content Clinical Evidence
is relatively stable, there are wide fluctations in serum ion-ized magnesium. It is this ionized portion that affects the Various studies have shown positive therapeutic out- physiological component of a migraine. Migraine research comes of feverfew monotherapy for migraine prophylaxis; found multiple relationships between magnesium deficit however, a few studies have shown no clinical benefit. In the table below are data collected from five different clinical tri-als obtained from a systematic review conducted in 1998.10 Pharmacology
Magnesium is an electrolyte necessary in a number of enzymatic processes, phosphate transfer, muscular contrac- MAGNESIUM
tion, and nerve conduction. Deficiencies have been docu- Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular mented in malabsorption syndromes, prolonged diarrhea, cation in the body and the most common intracellular diva- vomiting, pancreatitis, aldosteronism, kidney dysfunction, lent cation and a cofactor in hundreds of enzymatic process- chronic alcoholism, and diuretic therapies.
es; its central role in smooth muscle activity and peripheral First author
Patients entered/
Main outcome
tion and intensity of the attacks also declined without Inhibition of platelet aggregation / Serotonin levels
being statistically significant in comparison with theplacebo group.18 Platelet aggregation and serotonin release have been shown to be present during migraine attacks. Magnesium In a study by Mauskop et al., of the 40 patients to whom
has been shown to cause a dose-dependent inhibition of IV MgSO4 was administered, 32 (80%) had at least a platelet aggregation. Decreased magnesium levels may con- 50% initial reduction of pain intensity. In most patients, tribute to thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, which can headaches began to improve before the end of infusion.
lead to serotonin release from platelets.16 Complete elimination of pain was observed in 80% of the Vascular dilating effect
32 patients within 15 minutes of infusion. Of these 32patients, 18 had persistent headache relief beyond 24 Magnesium has a strong vascular dilating effect lend- hours. Long-term responses to MgSO4 varied in the dif- ing support to the vascular theory of migraine.2 Ionized magnesium levels are known to affect entry of calcium andrelease of intracellular calcium from the sacroplasmic and Findings from a study by Mauskop et al. indicate that
endoplasmic reticulum in vascular smooth muscle and vas- serum ionized magnesium levels can be used as a marker cular endothelial cells, and to control vascular tone and for detection of patients with migraine and cluster reactivity to endogenous hormones and neurotransmitters.
headaches who can benefit from magnesium infusions.20 Cerebral blood vessel muscle cells are particularly sensitive In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral magne-
to ionized magnesium; magnesium deficiency results in sium supplementation in 24 women with menstrual contraction and potentiation of vasoconstrictors and excess migraine, positive results were noted. Taken at a dose of magnesium results in vasodilation and inhibition of vaso- 360 mg/day taken in 3 divided doses for 4 months, there was a 50% reduction in the number of days with NMDA receptor antagonist
headache. Patients receiving active treatment also showedimprovement according to the Menstrual Distress Magnesium is intimately involved in the control of N- Questionnaire score. Four patients dropped out of the methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, which study, but only one did so because of adverse effects play an important role in pain transmission in the nervous (magnesium-induced diarrhea). In a larger double-blind, system and in the regulation of cerebral blood flow.
placebo-controlled study involving 81 patients with Magnesium ions plug the NMDA receptors and prevent cal- migraine headaches, a significant improvement in cium ions from entering the cell. Lowering magnesium con- patients receiving magnesium therapy was demonstrated.
centration facilitates activation of the NMDA receptor, which The frequency of migraine attacks was reduced by 41.6% allows calcium to enter the cell and exert its effects on both in the magnesium group compared with only 15.8% in neurons and cerebral vascular muscle.16 Blocking the recep- the placebo group; 3 patients receiving magnesium ther- tor renders calcium unable to exert its vasodilatory effects.
Results of clinical studies
Many clinical studies have researched the use of magne-
For migraine prophylaxis: oral intake of 300 to 600 sium in migraine treatment and prophylaxis. The follow- ing data is from selected published clinical studies.
Adverse reactions
Bigal et al. found that the relief of pain with IV magne-
Diarrhea and gastric complaints are the most common- sium sulfate (MgSo4) was not different from treatment ly reported adverse drug reactions. In one study, tolerabil- with placebo in the migraine without aura (MO) group, ity of magnesium was assessed. Sixteen (45.6%) of 35 and was better than placebo in the migraine with aura patients in the magnesium group reported 35 adverse events group (MA). Magnesium sulfate was highly effective in during the course of treatment, mainly soft stools (5 relieving photophobia and phonophobia in both MO and patients), diarrhea (5 patients), and heart palpitations (3 MA groups. There was a greater response observed, in all patients). Altogether 17 episodes of adverse events symptoms, in the MA group than in the MO group.17 occurred in 8 (23.5%) of the 34 patients on placebo.22 In a study by Peikert et al., high oral doses of magnesium
At higher doses of magnesium, low blood pressure, lowered the frequency of migraine attacks within 12 nausea, vomiting, urinary retention, decreased heart rate, weeks of therapy. Compared to placebo, the therapeutic and dilation of blood vessels have been documented. Coma effects were already significant by the second therapy and cardiac arrest are known to occur with toxic doses of phase (weeks 5–8) and were confirmed by a significant magnesium. Magnesium may accumulate in patients who reduction in the number of migraine days as well as the have decreased renal function; therefore, one must be cau- per patient consumption of acute medication. The dura- tious when consuming magnesium as a dietary supplement.
In addition, use of magnesium in pregnant women should Chemistry
be approached with caution due to its dilating properties.23 The active, phosphorylated forms of riboflavin, flavine Drug Interactions
mononucleotide and flavine adenine dinucleotide, are Before beginning therapy with magnesium or any over- involved as coenzymes in oxidative-reductive metabolic the-counter supplement, a complete medication review reactions. These two coenzymes are necessary for normal should be conducted by a pharmacist or physician since mag- tissue respiration. Riboflavin is also necessary for the func- nesium may interfere with the absorption of many other med- tioning of pyridoxine and nicotinic acid.
ications. Lanoxin,® Macrodantin,® penicillamine, and tetra- Pharmacokinetics
cycline drugs such as Sumycin,® and Vibramycin® may be Riboflavin is readily absorbed in the proximal small less well absorbed in the presence of magnesium, decreasing intestine by a saturable transport mechanism. It is enzy- their effectiveness. This is especially important with Lanoxin matically metabolized to two active metabolites in the small since its therapeutic concentration must be monitored close- intestine: flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinu- ly for clinical effectiveness. Antimicrobials like nitrofuran- cleotide. Bile salts enhance absorption of riboflavin and toin and tetracyclines may not be effective against bacterial people with biliary obstruction have decreased absorption.
pathogens due to less-than-anticipated serum concentrations.
Approximately 6 to 12% of a dietary dose is excreted in the Concomitant use with excretion-reducing drugs can increase urine. The amount excreted in the feces can exceed the the effects of supplemental magnesium and magnesium amount ingested following dietary doses due to the synthe- serum levels. These drugs include calcitonin, glucagons, and sis of riboflavin by intestinal bacteria. The elimination half- life is 1.4 hours with a terminal half-life of 14 hours.
Family history
A strong family history is present in up to 80% of Problems in humans have not been documented with patients with migraines.21 This fact along with the identifi- normal oral intake of daily recommended amounts. Toxicity cation of a gene for familial hemiplegic migraine suggests of high doses of riboflavin has not been reported.24 Likely that genetic factors are present in a majority of migraine safe when used at the recommended dietary allowance patients. Cellular magnesium content and magnesium (RDA) of 1.4 mg per day. There is insufficient reliable infor- metabolism are also under genetic control. Possibly there is mation for using larger amounts during pregnancy.24 an overlap between these two genetic mechanisms.21 Drug Interactions
Migraine management
Concomitant use with Probenecid (Benemid) inhibits Another important aspect of migraine management is supplemental riboflavin absorption. Propantheline Bromide identifying and avoiding triggers. Many migraine headaches (Pro-Banthine) concomitant use delays and increases sup- can be triggered by certain foods, especially those contain- ing tyramine. Caffeine or caffeine withdrawal and strongodors, such as perfume, are other common triggers. It is Adverse Effects
often helpful for patients to keep a headache diary to record Bright yellow-orange discoloration of urine.24 possible triggers. Typically, removing identified triggers sig- Migraine Considerations
nificantly reduces the frequency of headaches.22 A mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in impaired Riboflavin
oxygen metabolism may play roles in migraine pathogensis.
Riboflavin, also known as the water-soluble vitamin B Migraine headache can be a prominent feature in patients is essential for the body’s conversion of food to energy. It affected by the syndrome of mitochondrial encephalomy- enables carbohydrates, proteins and fats to release energy, and opathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS).
is also needed for normal reproduction, growth and repair of Riboflavin is the precursor of flavin mononucleotide and skin, hair, nails, and joints. The riboflavin requirement in flavin adenine dinucleotide, which are required for the humans is often related to energy intake, but it appears more activity of flavoenzymes involved in the electron transport closely related to resting metabolic requirements. Differing chain. Riboflavin, when given to patients with MELAS or amounts are recommended for infants, children, and pregnant mitochondrial myopathies on the assumption that at large women based on differences in their caloric intakes. The rec- doses it might augment activity of mitochondrial complex- ommended daily intake for adults is 1.1 mg for women and es I and II, and improve oxidative metabolism, was able to 1/3 mg/day for men. Rich sources of riboflavin are liver, kid- improve clinical and biochemical abnormalities.28 ney, eggs, milk, cheese, yeast, broccoli and spinach.24 Controlled Trials
Indications: Riboflavin deficiency prophylaxis.24 Two controlled trials exhibited the benefits of Possibly effective in migraine prophylxis.24-27 riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted by Schoenen et al. to compare the effects of high-dose riboflavin versus decrease the inflammatory process.31 Two case reports placebo on migraine frequency, number of migraine days, from a neurology practice that used a combination product duration, and severity of headache. Fifty-five migraine of magnesium, feverfew, and riboflavin to treat migraine patients were randomized to receive either riboflavin, 400 mg a day, or placebo for a 3-month period. Using an inten- Randomized, placebo-controlled studies of the combi- tion-to-treat analysis, riboflavin was superior to placebo in nation products are required to fully evaluate and confirm reducing attack frequency (p=0.005) and headache days their benefit in migraine treatment or prophylaxis. (p=0.012). In the group of patients who improved by at least50%, i.e. responders, the attack frequency improved 19% inthe placebo group and 56% in the riboflavin group REFERENCES:
(p=0.01); in the number of migraine days, the placebo 1. Lipton RB, Stewart WF, Celentano DD, Reed ML.
group improved 15% as compared to a 59% improvement in Undiagnosed migraine headaches: a comparison of the riboflavin group (p=0.002). The authors of the study symptom-based and reported physician diagnosis. Arch concluded that because of its high efficacy, excellent tolera- Intern Med. 1992;152:1273-1278.
bility, and low cost, riboflavin is an interesting option for 2. Longwood Herbal Task Force, Massachusetts College of migraine prophylaxis and a candidate for a comparative Pharmacy and Health Sciences, and the Dana Farber trial with an established prophylactic drug. Three minor Cancer Institute. http://www.mcp.edu/herbal/about.htm.
adverse events occurred, two in the riboflavin group (diar- rhea and polyuria), and on e in the placebo group (abdomi-nal cramps). No serious side effects were reported and the 3. Klepser TB, Klepser ME. Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies. Am J Health Syst Pharm. Jan 1999;15;56(2):125-141. An open pilot study was conducted and 49 patients with recurrent migraines were given riboflavin 400 mg/day with 4. Miller LG. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considera- breakfast for at least 3 months. The mean number of tions focusing on known or potential drug-herb interac- migraines fell by 67% and mean migraine severity improved tions. Archive of Internal Medicine.1998;158(20):2200- by 68%. One patient stopped treatment because of gastric intolerance, but that patient was also taking aspirin. No 5. Grant E. Herbs and Dietary Supplements for Migraine. other side effects were reported and the riboflavin was well University of Montana School of Pharmacy and Allied Health tolerated. The study suggests that riboflavin supplements Sciences Drug Information Service. Sept 2002;6(9):1-3.
may reduce the recurrence rate of migraines.29 http://www.umt.edu/druginfo/news02/Alt%20Migraine%20T Conclusion
The controlled trials are encouraging information for 6. Makheja AN, Bailey JM. The active principle in fever- further research. Riboflavin is a promising alternative for preventing migraine headaches because it is safe, well tol- 7. Biggs MJ, Johnson ES, Persaud NP, Ratcliffe DM.
erated and inexpensive. However, more research needs to Platelet aggregation in patients using feverfew for be conducted to prove the efficacy and long-term safety.
8. Heptinstall S, White A, Williamson L, Mitchell JR.
Extracts of feverfew inhibit granule secretion in blood FEVERFEW, AND RIBOFLAVIN
platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Lancet.1985;1:1071-1074. Since moderate success has been suggested with indi- vidual preparations of magnesium, feverfew, and riboflavin, 9. Murch SJ, Simmons CB, Saxena PK. Melatonin in fever- use of these agents in combination may exert a synergistic few and other medicinal plants. Lancet.1997;350:1598- antagonistic affect on migraine prophylaxis and treatment.
Several combination dietary supplement products are cur- 10. Vogler K, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Feverfew as a preventa- rently available, including MigreLief® With Puracol, ™ tive treatment for migraine: a systemic review.
Herbal Migraine Formula,® and MigraHealth.™ 30 While individual data on these products is limited, 11. Pfaffenrath V, et al. The efficacy and safety of information from physicians who are using these combina- Tanacetum parthenium (feverfew) in migraine prophy- tion products in their practices suggest that combination laxis—a double-blind, multicentre, randomized place- products may assist to maintain proper tone of cerebral bo-controlled dose-response study. Cephalalgia.
blood vessels. By improving tone, blood may flow freely from vessel to vessel and prevent sudden spasms. It mayalso inhibit platelet aggregation, stabilize membranes, and 12. Murphy JJ, Heptinstall S, Mitchell JR. Randomized 28. Schoenen J, Jacquy J, Lenaerts M. Effectiveness of double-blind placebo-controlled trial of feverfew in high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis: a ran- migraine prevention. Lancet.1988;2:1891-1892. domized controlled trial. Neurology.1998;50:466-470. 13. Johnson ES, Kadam NP, Hylands DM, Hyland PF.
29. Schoenen J, Lenaerts M, Bastings E. High-dose Efficacy of feverfew as prophylactic treatment of riboflavin as a prophylactic treatment of migraine: results of an open pilot study. Cephalagia. 1994;4:328-329. 14. http://www.stevenfoster.com/education/monograph/fever- 30. www. Healthy.networks.com. Accessed July 25, 2003.
15. Cohen JS. High-dose oral magnesium treatment of chronic, intractable erythromelalgia. Annals ofPharmacotherapy. 2002;36(2):255-260. 16. Mauskop A, Altura BM. Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraines. ClinicalNeuroscience. 1998;5(1):24-27. 17. Bigal ME, Bordini CA, Tepper SJ, Speciali JG.
Intravenous magnesium sulphate in the acute treatmentof migraine without aura and migraine with aura: a ran-domized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Cephalalgia. 2002;22(5);345-353. 18. Peikert A, Vilimzig C, Kohne-Volland R. Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium: results from a prospec-tive, multi-center, placebo-controlled and double-blindrandomized study. Cephalalgia. 1996;16(6):257-262. 19. Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, Altura BM.
Intravenous magnesium sulfate rapidly alleviatesheadaches of various types. Headache. 1996;36(3):154-160. 20. Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco, RQ, Altura BM. Serum ionized magnesium levels as a biological marker inpatients with headaches. Headache Quarterly.1996;7(2):142-144. 21. Mauskop A, Altura MB. Magnesium for migraine: ratio- nale for use and therapeutic potential. CNS Drugs.
22. Novella S. What works for prevention of migraines? Journal of Critical Illness.1999;14(2):65-66. 23. Jellin JM, Blatz F, Hitchens K. Magnsium. In: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA:Therapetuic Research Faculty; 1999:606-608.
24. Jellin JM, Blatz F, Hitchens K. Riboflavin. In: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Stockton, CA:Therapeutic Research Faculty; 1999:794-795. 25. http://www.micromedex.com/products/diseasedexemer- gency/samples/dsdxemergmigraine.pdf; riboflavinmonograph. Accessed July 23, 2003. 26. Riboflavin. In: Drug Information Handbook 11th ed.
Hudson, OH:Lexi-Comp; 2003:1216-1217. 27. Krymchantowski AV, Bigal ME, Moreira PF. New and emerging prophylactic agents for migraine. CNSDrugs.2002;16(9):611-634. Case Reports on Patients Diagnosed with
Migraine and Placed on A Nutraceutical
Product Containing Riboflavin, Magnesium
and Feverfew
Certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology the American Board of Holistic Medicine, and the American Society of Neurorehabilitation While serving as assistant professor of Neurology at ical assistance in her early 30s but only received Fiorinal to the University of Miami School of Medicine, Dr. Cohen be taken abortively. By her early 40s, she suffered from was in the forefront of the development of neurorehabilita- severe headaches four to six times a month, each lasting 8 tion as a speciality. Her work as Director of Outpatient to 12 hours. Amitriptyline at 25 mg decreased the frequen- Neurorehabilitation Services at the University of Miami cy of headaches to four times a month. Identified triggers culminated in the book Comprehensive Management of at that time included MSG, sulfates, nitrates, dehydration, Parkinson’s Disease, one of the first to outline a holistic changes in weather, and flying. Verapamil was added to the approach to treating this condition. Dr. Cohen has practiced regimen approximately five years later, but there was no holistic neurology for the past ten years and maintains a clear change in the headache pattern.
holistic neurology practice in Denver. These case reports At the time of her presentation, headaches were come from her practice following patient consent.
described as starting with a throbbing sensation in a head-band distribution with pain intensity at 4 on a scale of 1 to CASE HISTORY #1:
10. The pain then evolved to a severe left temporal throb-bing considered "excruciating," sometimes associated with A 50-year-old, right-handed woman reported to the nausea. There were no visual changes. There was no neurologist's office with a history of severe headaches dat- numbness, tingling, or weakness. Abortive treatment with ing back to high school. Over time, the headaches Maxalt or Imitrex nasal spray helped to decrease the pain, increased in frequency and intensity. She first sought med- but two doses were required and the patient was left with a"significant hangover effect." Often headaches were sosevere that they put the patient to bed. A survey of pertinent lifestyle factors showed consis- tent sleep patterns with seven to eight hours of sleep a night without interruption. There was no clear source of toxin 14062 Denver West Parkway, Suite 140 exposure in the work or home environment. Aerobic exer- cise was performed at least 20 minutes daily and she played Phone: (303) 278-2040 Fax: (303) 216-1437 tennis at least two times a week for two hours at a time.
Given the prior identification of dietary triggers, diet con- migraine. She denied side effects of medication other than sisted of unprocessed foods without soda, coffee, or choco- a dry mouth likely due to the Amitriptyline. Other than a late. The patient described herself as "happy, anxious, and transient increase in migraine frequency associated with angry". Her most significant stressors were related to her significant stress, the patient's headache pattern has family, particularly her teenage children. A high level of satisfaction was attained from her environment and finan-cial status. Levels of fun and recreation, career, relation-ships, and level of spirituality engendered moderate feelings CASE HISTORY #2:
A 58-year-old, right-handed gentleman presented to the physician's office with an almost 20-year history of severe Amitriptyline 25 mg qhs, either Rizatriptan 10 mg or headaches. Headaches typically occurred two to three times Sumatriptan nasal spray 20 mg abortively for headache, and a month, but in the winter occurred up to two times a week.
Temazepam 15 mg as needed for sleep with headache.
Headaches started in a retro-orbital location as a moderate tosevere throbbing pain either on the right or left sides. There A complete neurology examination showed significant was no aura. He experienced nausea but no photophobia.
muscle spasm along the upper border of the trapezius mus- Headaches generally lasted 4 to 12 hours and were aborted cles as well as in the occipital areas bilaterally, more so on successfully with Cafergot but usually required two doses.
the right side than the left. There were no abnormalities at There were no clear triggers other than stress. the temporomandibular joint, including clicking or tender-ness. Mental status, cranial nerve testing, and sensory In looking at lifestyle factors, there was a high level of examinations were within normal limits. Strength to con- satisfaction with relationships and recreation with only frontation was normal. There was persistent fixation about moderate levels regarding career and financial issues.
the left upper extremity but no drift or slowness of fine fin- Stressors were most commonly related to career. Sleep was ger movements on that side. Reflexes were 2 throughout.
generally quite good. Dietary factors showed little intake of The right toe was downgoing. The left toe was equivocal, a chocolate or caffeine. Alcohol intake was only occasional finding difficult to interpret given the history of prior and there was no history of smoking. Aerobic exercise was Impression after the initial evaluation was migraine Medications were Propranolol at 80 mg a day and without aura possibly preceded by muscle contraction headache. Although the patient had identified triggers for A neurology examination was pertinent only for a her migraines and eliminated these from her lifestyle, she depression in the left skull secondary to placement of a continued to have headaches at a significant rate of four to radium plate to treat a scalp lesion many years before.
six per month. At the time of her visit, she was on subther- Mental status, cranial nerve, motor, sensory, reflex, and apeutic doses of Verapamil and Amitriptyline. She also coordination examinations were within normal limits. waited to institute abortive treatment until the headache was Clinical impression was that of migraine without aura.
well evolved. Findings on examination were discussed In the past, there was no response to prophylactic treatment including the question of subtle weakness on the left side.
with Verapamil and Nifedipine. The patient had a partial Initial recommendations included an MRI of the brain as response to Propranolol at 80 mg a day. In spite of this, he well as maintenance of a headache diary. The MRI showed continued with three to four headaches per month and a few punctate areas of increased signal bilaterally. Several responses to Cafergot were diminishing. A recommenda- changes were made to the medical regimen.
tion was made to institute a combination product of mag- Verapamil was discontinued and Amitriptyline was nesium, riboflavin, and feverfew (Migre Lief®) at one tablet slowly increased to 35 mg nightly. A combination product twice a day. At a subsequent visit six months later, of magnesium, riboflavin, and feverfew (Migre Lief®) was headache frequency had diminished to one headache every initiated at one tablet twice a day. Recommendations were four to six weeks. Subsequent visits showed maintenance made to take abortive treatment at onset of migraine in of this pattern over a year. The patient denied side effects order to optimize therapeutic benefit. Strategies for addressing muscle contraction and stress responses werealso discussed.
Two and a half months later, there was a clear improve- ment in headache pattern. Headache frequency decreasedfrom an average of five per month to approximately one permonth. The patient did not have any headaches that forcedher into bed. She noted improved response of the headachesto abortive management when taking the triptan at onset of

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by Burkhart and Burkhart demonstrated that tacrolimus hasInternational Cosmetic Dictionary) such as deionized water,superior efficacy to alclometasone dipropionate which,zinc oxide, magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, isopropanol,according to several classifications, is a mid-potent cortico-triethanolamine and benzoic acid. This composition has lowsteroid similar to hydrocortisone butyrate. s

Adrenoreceptors and bc - may 2010

Adrenoceptors and breast cancer: Review article Roisman R., Klemm O., Raphaeli G., and Roisman I. Dedicated to Mrs. Minka Klavins and Prof. Janis V. Klavins Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Correspondence to: Isaac Roisman, M.D., Dip. Surg., M. Surg., D.Sc. P.O.Box 45470 , Haifa 31453, Israel Tel.: (972-4)8388393, Fax: (972-4)8379503 Adrenocepto

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