Which of the following was not defined as clinical progression in the MTOPS
Increase of 4 points in the AUA symptom score
Involvement of the IVC with RCC occurs in
What is the bladder outlet obstruction index for a man with a voided volume of
310mls, a Qmax of 13mls/sec and a pdet at Qmax of 90cmH20?
Peritoneum can be assessed transvaginally through the
da vinci robotic system degree of freedom
Embryological origin of the transition zone
Diagnostic modality of choice In a 5 years old child with Posterior urethral Valve
All are causes of "pear shaped" Urinary Bladder except
most common cause of obstructive azoospermia
Which of the following is TRUE regarding outcomes for varicocele ligation?
Improved semen parameters in about two thirds of patients
No improvement in semen parameters in azoospermic patients
After transurethral resection of the ejaculatory ducts, the patient develops
retrograde ejaculation. What is the next step of management ?
Most common cause of priapism in children
Most common cause of premature ejaculation
most common cause of urinary ascitis in children
In a patient with a preexisting ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction, gross
hematuria following trauma is usually due to-
Laceration through the thinned renal cortex
Indications for pretransplant native nephrectomy include all of the following
most common cause of VVF in developing countries
most common type of rejection seen in post renal transplant recepients
What percentage of undescended testes are nonpalpable at presentation?
What is the most common cause of micropenis?
Creating an antireflux mechanism is most difficult with anastomosis to the-
most common cause of retroperitoneal fibrosis
lower urinary tract symptoms are uncommon
hypertension occurs in upto 50% of patients
Which of the following studies best for diagnosis of PUJO in a 10 years old boy
Which of the following studies best predicts whether renal functional recovery will
occur after reconstruction of an obstructed kidney?
treatment of choice for 1 cm diverticular stone in kidney of a 30 yr old male
Most common organism for community acquired UTI
Which one of the following is Most common cause of painless recurrent hematuria
Bone scan showing extensive metastasis in carcinoma prostate
Xray pelvis showing extensive metastasis in carcinoma prostate
MRI pelvis showing extensive metastasis in carcinoma prostate
PET Scan showing Lung metastasis in carcinoma prostate
Which vessels serve as macroscopic landmark to aid in the identification of the
microscopic branches of the pelvic plexus?
The entire spermatogenic process in humans requires how many days
Primary genetic abnormality in low grade bladder cancer is associated with
Which one of the following is not the ureterocolonic anastomosis?
Patients with prostatitis, especially acute suppurative prostatitis,true is
Should have residual urine measured by intermittent catheterization.
Should have bladder decompression by urethral catheter.
Should have repeated prostatic massage.
Should have no transurethral instrumentation if possible.
Urethral stricture commonly seen in straddle injury at
Boundary of retroperitoneum are all except-
Sacrospinalis and quadratus lumborum muscles
Which statement regarding lumodorsal fascia is not correct-
The lumbodorsal fascia originates from the spinous processes of the lumbar vertebrae
The posterior layer provides the posterior covering for the sacrospinalis muscle as well as
the origin for the latissimus dorsi muscle
As it progresses upward, it separates into three layers: posterior, middle, and anterior
The anterior layer of the lumbodorsal fascia forms the anterior margin of the
Lymphatic flow in retroperitoneum is in direction
Which one of the following is not the sex accessory tissues-
Which statement regarding dromedary hump is not correct-
Focal renal parenchymal bulge along the kidney's lateral contour
It is more common on the left than the right
It is believed to be caused by downward pressure from the spleen or liver.
Orientation of the kidney is in what direction-
Upper poles are situated more medially and posteriorly than the lower poles.
Upper poles are situated more laterally and posteriorly than the lower poles.
Upper poles are situated more medially and anteriorly than the lower poles.
Upper poles are situated more medially and anteriorly than the lower poles.
Permanent renal failure in adults is commonly defined as an irreversible
To maximize fertility potential, orchidopexy for cryptorchidism should be done
Within the age group 10 to 35 years, the incidence of carcinoma of the testis in
Equal to that in the general population.
Five times greater than that in the general population.
Ten times greater than that in the general population.
Twenty times greater than that in the general population.
How much of ureteral defect can be bridged with boari flap-
Which surgery is most commonly associated with ureteral injury
Vessel that can cause troublesome bleeding during placement of pelvic
In rupture of penile urethra extravasation will not spread to-
Islands of benign-appearing urothelium situated in the lamina propria is termed
bilateral anterior lenticonus is the usual eye manifestation
sensory neural deafness usually to high tone first.
the pathological hallmark is progressive degeneration of the glomerular basement
First human renal allograft was performed by
All except show, significant probability of disease recurrence and the risk of
Most common group of lymph node involved in bladder cancer is-
Is principally a disease of young females
Is associated with urinary frequency and urgency.
May be corrected by surgically increasing the volume of the bladder.
Is a disease of aging produced by shortening of the urethra.
Which factor contributes to the profound diuresis and natriuresis in BUO
When compared with TURP, open prostatectomy offers all the advantages except-
More complete removal of the prostatic adenoma under direct vision
Avoids the risk of dilutional hyponatremia
Decreased potential for perioperative hemorrhage
Greatest risk of ischemic renal injury is to-
Which statement regarding genetics of bladder tumour is not correct
9q losses is assosiated with development of low grade superficial tumour
High grade cancers are associated with p53 and chromosome 17 deletions
Precise molecular analysis has been far from complete for chromosome 13 because most
Abnormal expression of RB occur primarily in aggressive TCCs
Primary hyperparathyroidism is the cause of nephrolithiasis in
Not true regarding smoking and urinary bladder carcinoma is
Higher number of p53 mutation occurs in smokers
Risk correlates with number of cigarettes and duration of smoking
Reduction of risk down to baseline occurs 5 years after cessation of smoking
Cigarette smokers have up to a fourfold higher incidence of bladder cancer than do people
Predisposing factors for squamous cell carcinoma are all except
Most common malignancy-associated hypercalcemia is-
The most common type of stone associated with distal RTA is
Leydig cells of the testis are the major source of the testicular androgens.
Man undergoing bilateral simple orchiectomy is functionally castrate within 1 to 2 hours of
Only 2% of the total serum testosterone is unbound (free testosterone) in the plasma
Testosterone is the major form of androgen found within the prostate gland
Which statement regarding 5 -reductase enzyme is not correct
The type I enzyme is in the skin and in the adult scalp and is believed to be involved in hair
The type I enzyme is the dominant isoform present in the prostate gland.
The type II enzyme appears in the basal cells of the epithelium and in the stromal cells
The type II enzyme is absent in the secretory epithelial cells.
Most important pathogenetic factor for uric acid stone formation is-
Most common organism associated with infection stones
Risk of recurrence for first stone formers within the subsequent 10 years is
Single most important test to delineate the nature renal mass is
The risk of malignancy for category II renal cysts is-
Upper urinary tract imaging is recommended in evaluation of men with LUTS in all
Which statement is not true regarding HDN of pregnancy
The left kidney becomes hydronephrotic more commonly than the right
USG findings are hydroureteronephrosis extending to the pelvic brim.
MRU has been advocated as a noninvasive, nonradiating method of assessing those with
The majority of patients with symptomatic hydronephrosis of pregnancy can be managed
Which statement is not true regarding endometriosis-
Endometriosis of the urinary tract is predominantly found in the bladder
Eighty percent of ureteral endometriosis is intrinsic and primarily involves the distal ureter
Significant portion of patients with ureteral endometriosis do not have genitourinary
Paraneoplastic syndromes are found in how many patients with RCC
Contraindications to a percutaneous endopyelotomy includes all except-
During endopyelotomy incision should be made in which direction to avoid injury
Aberrant or accessory lower pole vessels when found in association with the UPJ
obstruction ,which is the best pyeloplasty option-
Which pyeloplasty was originally designed for repair of PUJO with high insertion
The Banff classification is accepted as the standard schema for diagnosing
Renal trauma with >1 cm parenchymal depth of renal cortex without collecting
Incidence of single artery entering testis is-
Peak of testosterone occurs in the blood at all ages except
Which one of the following statement regarding Blood testis barrier is correct?
Spermatogonia and young spermatocytes are outside the blood-testis barrier in the
Mature spermatocytes and spermatids are sequestered above the barrier in the basal
The presence of germ cells is not necessary for the development of the barrier
Testicular insult, such as biopsy, torsion, or trauma, will induce antisperm antibodies if the
Career Narrative for Guggenheim Fellowship Application I have a tin can on my desk that I bought in Budapest in the autumn of 1989. It's considerably smaller than your standard tuna can and extremely light in weight. If you tap your fingernail on it, it gives a hollow ring. But the label, complete with a universal bar code, announces in bold letters that, in fact, it's not empty: “Kommunizm