Paper title (use style: paper title)
KMITL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL VOL.13, NO.1, 2013
Antimotility Effect of Machiluss odoratissima
& Sonchus wightianus
Amit Subedi§‡*, Dipak Khakural§, Sadhana Amatya§, Tirtha Maiya Shrestha§§,
§Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
‡ College of Pharmacy, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749, South Korea.
§§ Department of Pharmacy, Kathmandu University, Nepal.
† Department of Plant Resources, Kathmandu, Nepal.
The extracts of Machiluss odoratissima
were subjected to investigate phytochemical,
cytotoxic and antimotility properties. The phytochemical
Barks of M. odoratissima
and leaves of S.
screening showed the presence of different compounds. The
wightianus were collected from Phulchowki and
cytotoxic screening showed that both the extracts are non-
Sanepa respectively of Kathmandu Valley during the
toxic. The in vivo study showed the presence of potent
month of November. Brine shrimp from San Francisco
Bay (USA) was used and Swiss albino mouse were purchased from Department of plant resource,
Machiluss odoratissima, Sonchus wightianus,
extract – Briefly, cleaned, air
dried, and powdered barks were macerated by
Diarrheal disease is responsible for deaths of
methanol. The methanolic fraction was defatted by
millions of children especially in developing countries
using petroleum ether. Finally, the methanolic portion
. The commonly used antimotility drugs,
was dried by vacuum evaporator at temperature
loperamide and diphenoxylate, are not free from
associated risk and have limited use in children. Thus,
extract – Briefly, the cleaned, air
for the search of new, safe and efficacious antimotility
dried and powdered leaves were successively extracted
in Soxhlet apparatus by petroleum ether, diethyl
Plants have been the source of number of chemical
ether, methanol and water. The extracts were dried
identity with pharmacological values. Though many
by keeping in water bath below 70°C. Methanolic
plants in developing countries are used as traditional
portion was used during all the experiments.
medicine, the science behind their use is still unknown. Besides traditionally used medicinal plants,
there are still many other plants with their medicinal values unknown and unexplored.
Phytochemical screening of the extracts was done
, locally called Dudhe, of asteraceae
to identify the main groups of chemical constituents
family is found in 700-4500 m in Nepal while M.
by their color reactions as described elsewhere [2, 4].
, locally called Kaulo, of lauraceae family
is found in 2100-2300 m on lower part of Himalaya . S wightianus
is traditionally used during diarrhea
Brine shrimp bioassay was done according to
 but not yet evaluated scientifically. M.
Carballo . Briefly, artificial seawater was prepared
is not used traditionally for medicinal
and brine shrimps were hatched in beaker by
purpose but reported to have antioxidant and
sparkling brine shrimp eggs at 1gm/ltr. It was
antimicrobial property . Thus, in our present study
continuously illuminated with table lamp and
we chose one traditionally used medicinal plant and
temperature was maintained at 25-30°C. After 48 hrs,
one with no traditional use to evaluate their
ten highly active phototropic nauplii were transferred to test tube. Stock solutions of the extracts were
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
prepared and required volume was transferred to test
tube and final volume was adjusted to 5 ml by adding
sea water. Dry yeast suspension was added in each
KMITL-STJ: Research report/Finding, Part A: Material Science
test tube as a source of food. After 24 hrs, the number
Amit Subedi et. al.: Antimotility effect of Machiluss odoratissima & Sonchus wightianus from Nepal
of dead nauplii in each test tube was counted against bright background. The percentage mortality of brine
TABLE II. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF
shrimps was calculated at each concentration and
M.ODORATISSIMA AND S.WIGHTIANUS. PE = PETROLEUM
control. LC (lethal concentration for 50%
ETHER, DE = DIETHYL ETHER, MET = METHANOL
population) of the extracts weredetermined by
regression equation obtained by plotting mean %
mortality against logarithm of concentration. Results shown are average of five experiments for each dose.
Charcoal meal test was used to evaluate the
efficacy of a compound to inhibit gastrointestinal
motility in small intestine as described by Rouf .
Ethical approval for animal experiments was taken
from Institutional Review Board of Institute of
Medicine, Kathmandu, Nepal. Briefly, mouse of 20-25
gm were starved for 20 hrs prior to experiments and
were divided into 4 groups of 4 mice each. Control
group received distilled water at 10 ml/kg, positive
control group received atropine at 5 mg/kg and test
group received extract intraperitoneally at specified
dose prepared in volume of 10ml/kg. After 30 minutes, each group received 1 ml charcoal meal per
oral (charcoal meal = 12 gm activated charcoal, 2 gm gum tragacanth diluted to 130 ml by distilled water).
The brine shrimp bioassay showed that the LC
After 30 minutes of charcoal meal, each mouse was
for methanolic extract of M. odoratissima
killed. The abdomen was opened and intestine from
µg/ml while that of S. wightianus
is 2248.72 µg/ml as
pylorus to ileocaecal junction was cut and its length
shown in Table III. The LC values of both the
measured. The distance which charcoal meal travelled
extracts are very higher than nontoxic levels . So it
from pylorus was measured and expressed as
is likely that the extract or the lead compound
responsible for the pharmacological effect has very
BRINE SHRIMP BIOASSAY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF
Distance travelled by charcoal meal
3.1 Extractive values and Phytochemical Screening
The extracts were prepared as described and the
extractive values are shown in Table I. The
phytochemical screening showed that M. odoratissima
contains terpenoids, tannins, deoxy sugar, saponin
and phenolic compounds while S. wightianus
contains glycoside, steroid, tannin, flavonoids, deoxy sugar and
The extract of S.wightianus
and M. odoratissima
showed potent antimotility effect in Swiss albino mice
EXTRACTIVE VALUES OF M.ODORATISSIMA AND S.WIGHTIANUS IN DIFFERENT SOLVENT SYSTEM
as shown (Fig.1). The extract of S. wightianus
was more potent than that of M. odoratissima
present in vivo study showed that extracts of both
the plant possess promising antimotility effect. The
crude extract showed more potent action than
atropine. Thus we can conclude that both the plants possess potent and safe antimotility compound.
The extract of S. wightianus
dependent activity. Surprisingly, the effect of extract of M. odoratissima
was not dose dependent (Fig. 1). From this study we could not find out the reason but it is possible that the M. odoratissima
extract contains promotility and antimotility compounds and
KMITL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL VOL.13, NO.1, 2013
the effect of antimotility compound got saturated at 50 mg/kg while the promotility compound still
showing dose dependent effect at 50 mg/kg.
We would like to give special thanks Purna
Bahadur Rana and Bishal Raj Adhikari for their assistance and contribution during the study.
 Ojewole JAO, Awe EO, Chiworroro WDH, 2008.
Antidiarrhoeal activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extracts in rodents. J. Smoth Muscle Res., 44(6), 195-207
 Subedi A, Amatya MP, Shrestha TM, Mishra SK,
Pokhrel BM, 2012. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity
pharmacopoeia used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea in Arunachal Pradesh. Medicinal Plants -
International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related
Antimotility effect of extracts of M.odoratissima
and S.wightianus in Swiss albino mice. Data are
 Paudel A, Panthee S, Shakya S, Amatya S,
mean ± S.E of 4 mice. *, statistically significant
Shrestha TM, Amatya MP, 2011. Phytochemical
(p ≤ 0.05) and indicates significance against both
and antibacterial properties of Rhododendron
campanulatum from Nepal. Journal of Traditional Medicines, 6(6), 252-258.
 Carballo JL, Hernandez-Inda ZL, Perez P, Garcia-
Gravalos M, 2002. A comparison between two brine
The present study showed that both plants
shrimp assays to detect in vitro cytotoxicity in marine
contain compounds with significant antimotility
natural products. BMC Biotechnology, 2(17).
effect. Extracts from both plants can be used to
 Rouf R, Uddin SJ, Shilpi JA, Alamgir M, 2007.
develop new, potent and safe antimotility drug. This
Assessment of anti diarrhoeal activity of the methanol
study shows that scientific study also needs to be
extract of Xylocarpus granatum bark in mice model.
focused on plants without traditional medicinal values
Journal of Ethnopharamcology, 109(3), 539-542.
in the search of novel drug. Though we have not yet
 Moshi MJ, Innocent E, Otieno JN, Magadula JJ,
Nondo RSO, Otieno DF, Wensheit A, Mbabazi P,
antimotility effect, detailed studies of both plants
2010. Antimicrobial and brine shrimp activity of
involving isolation, purification and characterization
Acanthus pubescens root extracts. TJHR, 12(2).
pharmacological effects are going on and will be reported in future.
Access to HE Diploma: Guidelines for HE admissions staff November 2012 (for 2013 entry cycle)1 (1) General considerations and update See also: (2) (3) 1 Changes to the Access to HE qualification QAA has made no changes to the Access to HE Diploma for 2012-13 that will affect students' outcomes or achievements or how these are recorded, in 2013. • Since 2010, Access to HE Dip
The Research Literature: Academic MonitoringBrophy and Good (1986) made the following observation on the importance and complexity Elitist critics often undervalue teaching, or even suggest that anyone can teach. ("Those who can, do; those who can’t, teach.") The data reviewed here refute this myth well. Although it may be true that most adults could survive in the classroom, it is not