Magnesium is an essential mineral with multiple uses in the body. Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body - it can be found in human bones, teeth and red blood cells. More than 70 % of the population is deficient in
Functions of magnesium

Many of magnesium’s functions are due to its interactions with calcium. These functions include:
 Muscle relaxation - calcium is necessary for contraction of muscles but magnesium is essential  Regulation of sugar metabolism and blood glucose balance via regulation of insulin release.  Energy production by activating B vitamins essential for carbohydrate and fat metabolism - insufficient magnesium means you use more energy and so tire more quickly.  Cardiovascular health by reducing blood pressure and regulating heart rhythm.  Nervous System - magnesium is necessary for a relaxed and calm emotional state as it regulates the rate of neuronal activity in the brain. Low levels induce an increased sensitivity to all stimuli and cause a sense of irritability and a sense of being on edge.  Bone health - magnesium is essential for the proper use of calcium in the body so it improves  Hormone balance - magnesium influences the production and efficacy of many hormones in our bodies especially important for those suffering PMS.  Headaches caused by excessive muscle tension or hormone imbalance.  Sleep - adequate magnesium levels are necessary for good sleep as magnesium reduces the release of cortisol (the stress hormone).  Raises serotonin levels so is important for those who are agitated or depressed. High risk groups for a magnesium deficiency
 People who exercise and perspire a lot.  People with gut dysfunction especially diarrhoea, IBS, Ulcerative Colitis or Crohn’s.  People who smoke, drink more than two standard drinks of alcohol a day or drink lots of coffee  Older people as digestive powers decrease as you age. o Diuretics: Lasix, Bumex, Edecrin, and hydrochlorothiazide o Antibiotics: Gentamicin, and Amphotericin o Anti-neoplastic (Cancer) medication: Cisplatin Recommended daily magnesium requirement
o 1-3 years old: 80 milligrams o 4-8 years old: 130 milligrams o 9-13 years old: 240 milligrams o 14-18 years old (boys): 410 milligrams o 14-18 years old (girls): 360 milligrams Adult females: 310 milligrams Pregnancy: 360-400 milligrams Breastfeeding women: 320-360 milligrams Adult males: 400 milligram
Deficiency signs or symptoms

Magnesium deficiency often goes unnoticed as the initial symptoms are subtle; you often assume it is
just how your body is functioning as you age.
 Early symptoms are small spontaneous muscle twitches, often around your eyes, but the twitches could be in any muscle in your body, or it could include restless leg syndrome.  Cramps of any muscle or muscle fatigue.  Muscular tension causing headaches, back pain or TMJ dysfunction (jaw joint problems).  Irregular heart beat, palpitations, angina or high blood pressure.  Chest tightness or a feeling of not being able to breathe deeply.  Menstrual cramps or premenstrual irritability or breast tenderness.  Aversion to bright lights or loud noises.  Anxiety, panic attacks or just feeling on edge.  Peripheral nervous system sensations such as tingling, numbness, or zaps or tremors.  Hyperactivity and an inability to be still. Sources of magnesium

Magnesium is available in some foods, though these tend to be foods we do not consume in large
amounts. It is available in powder or capsule/tablet form from my clinic, each one containing a
different type of Magnesium Chelate (the compound to which the magnesium is bound). Each of
these has slightly different functions in the body so it is important to take the correct form.
Susan can tell you which type of magnesium is best for you and how much
to take.
Sources of magnesium
Foods High in Magnesium
Serving Size
Magnesium (mg)
Seeds, Legumes, Grains
Sources of magnesium
Foods High in Magnesium
Serving Size
Magnesium (mg)


Microsoft word - persistent pain doc 2007.doc

Membrane Stabilisers - Medicines that ‘stabilise’ nerve cells and prevent them from sending abnormal pain messages are proving to be very helpful in PPP. This type of medicine was originally used in epilepsy and so belongs in the family of ‘anti-epileptics’. Note that this is another example of a medicine being developed for one purpose, and then as knowledge expands, finding that it

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