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UKWIR Reports Catalogue STRYRESE

October 2005
The UKWIR research programme is currently divided into the following topic areas:
drinking water quality and health; toxicology; water resources; climate change;
wastewater treatment; biosolids; water mains and services as well as regulatory and
customer issues. This catalogue lists the reports on the subject of Toxicology.
In co-operation with the Environment Agency, the heading of ‘data services’. This provided a series of reports examining the behaviour of a investigation into Direct Toxicity Assessment wide range of potentially toxic substances in (DTA) and the results were published in 2000.
relation to drinking water and wastewater DTA is a way of finding and dealing with toxic pollution. DTA enhances traditional chemical UKWIR reports can only be
purchased via the UKWIR website:
The website also provides informa-
tion about current and proposed
UKWIR research programmes
You can also download the latest
version of UKWIR NEWS to get an
update on recent projects,
publications and technology transfer
the main concerns to date have been about the remedial action can be quickly applied.
1. Prioritisation of location
2. Selection of discharges
3. Characterisation of toxicity and assessment of
dilution and dispersion of discharges
4. Assessment of need to reduce ecotoxicity of
5. Discharge improvement plans (toxicity
reduction evaluation)
6. Discharge improvement plans (toxicity
“An endocrine disrupter is any natural or artificial substancewhich assumes the same function as a hormone in the body or 7. Post improvement plan appraisal
inhibits the normal functioning of natural hormones” UKWIR was set up by the UK water industry in 1993 to provide a framework for the procurement of a
common research programme for UK water operators on ‘one voice’ issues. UKWIR’s subscribers
comprise 24 water and sewerage undertakers in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland to
whom the publications listed herein are freely available.

Work is often carried out in collaboration with government departments and regulators including the
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs; the Drinking Water Inspectorate and the
Environment Agency. Work is also done in collaboration with research organisations internationally,
including the Global Water Research Coalition.

The work is undertaken by a wide range of companies, academic institutions and other organisations
in the UK and overseas. Project management is undertaken by both UKWIR members and individuals
employed by UKWIR.

Data services
Steroid Concentration in Treated Sewage Effluents &
Water Courses - Implications for Water Supplies

Inorganic Disinfection By-Products
Ref: 98/TX/01/1, ISBN 1 84057 095 4, 32pp, £20 Ref: 98/TX/01/7, ISBN 1 84057 136 5, 38pp, £50 Reviews and discusses the occurrence of steroids and their conjugates in raw Iodate and perchlorate were identified as having broad similarities to other and treated waters and the effectiveness of water treatment processes oxyhalide ions such as bromate, chlorate and chorite. Discusses the formation, (chlorination, ozone, PAC, coagulation and filtration, aeration) in removing occurrence and analysis of iodate and perchlorate in groundwater, surface them. Describes the development and validation of analytical techniques for water and following chlorination in water treatment. Iodate showed detecting oestrone, 17B-oestradiol and ethynyl oestradiol and gives the results persistance in the distribution system, but concentrations of perchlorate were of monitoring them in drinking waters.
A Review on Allergy and Dermatitis Associated with
Domestic Water Supplies

Example of chromatogram
Contractor: WRc plcRef: 96/DW/05/14, ISBN 1 84057 005 9, 32pp, £30 In recent years there has been an increase in the number of consumers reportingapparent allergic or irritant reactions due to contact with drinking water.
Assesses the relative ability of potential drinking water constituents andcontaminants to cause such reactions. A review was conducted based on reportsin the literature and on enquiries to the toxicology enquiry service over the past Mechanisms of Carcinogenicity of Trichloroethene (TCE)
ten years. Concludes that drinking water is a minor source of contaminants and Tetrachloroethene (PCE) and their Metabolites
which could cause contact dermatitis compared with other sources such asoccupational exposure and food.
Formation and Occurrence of Bromophenols,
Ref: 98/TX/01/6, ISBN 1 84057 132 2, 24pp, £100 Iodophenols, Bromoanisoles and Iodoanisoles in
Reviews literature relating to the carcinogencity of two widely used Drinking Water : An Investigation of Taste and
chlorinated solvents, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene. The weight ofevidence indicates that tri-and tetrachloroethene are not genotoxic Odour Potential
carcinogens. The use of a no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) and an appropriate safety factor to determine the tolerable daily intake (TDI) is, Ref: 96/DW/05/13, ISBN 1 84057 101 2, 62pp, £50 therefore, the most appropriate method to calculate an intake that is likely tobe safe for humans.
Gives results of panel testing on odour and flavour threshold values for 14commercially available haogenated phenols and anisoles. Analytical methods Removal of Nonlyphenol Ethoxylates by Water
for bromidation and iodination tests are developed and verified. The substances Treatment Processes
were analysed to satisfy which were likely to be formed from phenols or anisoles by treatment with chlorine in presence of bromide or iodide.
Ref: 98/TX/01/5, ISBN 1 84057 131 4, 6pp, £50 Treatment Chemicals as Sources of Contamination
Examines the effect, under laboratory conditions, of aeration, chlorination, of Drinking Water
ozonisation, coagulation and powdered activated carbon on nonylphenol ethoxylates, a class of compounds that may have oestrogenic properties. The Ref: 96/DW/05/11, ISBN 1 84057 057 1, 18pp, £20 report makes several preliminary conclusions on their removal, but suggeststhat further experiments under a wider range of conditions may be required.
In order to assess the likelihood that oestrogenic compounds may be present indrinking water, a range of such compounds was exposed to water treatment Oestrogenic Chemicals and their Behaviour During
processes under laboratory conditions. The compounds assessed were steroids Sewage Treatment
and nonylphenols. These were exposed to chlorination, ozonation, coagulation and powdered activated carbon (PAC). Presents the results of the laboratorystudy and provides an indication of the likely effects of water treatment on these Ref: 98/TX/01/4, ISBN 1 84057 129 2, 48pp, £100 Recycling and reuse of wastewater is reviewed. Four key applications for Effect of Water Treatment Processes on Oestrogenic
reuse of recovered water are identified: (a) domestic (b) irrigation (c) aquiferrecharge and (d) industrial. These applications are discussed in turn, with Chemicals
reference to required water quality and preferred technologies. Key data from Ref: 96/DW/05/10, ISBN 1 84057 006 7, 16pp, £20 Research Update on Oestrogenic Substances in
Preliminary investigation into the effect, under laboratory conditions, of the Environment
chlorination, coagulation, ozonation and powdered activated carbon (PAC) on a range of chemicals (steroids and nonylphenols) that have demonstratedoestrogenic activity in laboratory assays. Indicates the likely effects of the Ref: 98/TX/01/3, ISBN 1 84057 128 4, 28pp, £100 various treatments but concludes that confirmation, under a wide range of Updates 95/DW/05/3 Implications of Oestrogenic Substances in the conditions, requires more extensive investigation.
Environment, that examined hypothesised relationship between oestrogenic Bioavailability of Metals from Drinking Water
substances in the environment and reproductive disorders. Discusses 17B-oestradiol, ethinyl oestradiol, phthalates, bisphenol A, alkylphenols and nonylphenols in particular. Incorporates work undertaken world-wide, and Ref: 95/DW/05/9, ISBN 1 84057 052 0, 36pp, £50 Dscusses the concepts and issues concerning bioavailability of metals from Precursors of Halophenols and Related
different sources of exposure, relates them to the water industry and assesses the Substances and Fate in Distribution
state of current knowledge. Concludes that the current database regardingbioavailability of metals from diet is diverse but not very cohesive, rarely distinguishing between water and food components of the diet. Did not find Ref: 98/TX/01/2, ISBN 1 84057 124 1, 30pp, £50 universal support for the traditionally held dogma that metals are more available Identifies possible precursors, sources and stability of halophenols and for absorption from water owing to their presence in soluble form.
haloanisoles in water. Lists situations that could lead to odour and flavourcomplaints. Reviews literature and models the effects of chlorine treatment onthese substances and how they might degrade in the distribution system.
Visit www.ukwir.org to purchase reports
The Impact of Exposure and Toxicity Data on
Review of the Mechanisms of Toxicity and Current
Drinking Water Standards for Boron
Legislation of Chlorate and Chlorite
Ref: 95/DW/05/8, ISBN 1 84057 051 2, 20pp, £20 Ref: 95/DW/05/2, ISBN 1 84057 045 8, 34pp, £50 Discusses the potential toxicity of boron in relation to exposure via drinking Outlines the mechanisms of toxicity of chlorine dioxide, chlorate and chlorite, water and the incorporation of the WHO guideline value into standards identifies gaps in current knowledge and suggests further research which suitable for drinking water in Europe. Based on recent exposure data, this could clarify the situation. The work was undertaken due to concerns over the suggests that an allocation of 15 - 20% of the tolerable daily intake used to storage of chlorine gas and the move to safer means of generating chlorine for calculate the WHO guideline value and USEPA (199) health advisory value, to drinking water, could be considered suitable for the assessment of risk Trichloroacetaldehyde in Water Supplies
Modelling the Formation of Disinfection By-
Ref: 95/DW/05/1, ISBN 1 84057 044 X, 18pp, £40 products: A Feasibility Study
Surveys trichloroacetaldehyde (TCAL) concentrations in final waters from a selection of water treatment works across the UK. The selection covered a Ref: 95/DW/05/7, ISBN 1 84057 050 4, 20pp, £50 wide range of raw water types and treatment conditions. The results were Studies the feasibility of producing a model to describe the formation of compared to the provisional WHO guideline of 10 ug/1 in order to determine disinfection by-products (DBPs) during water treatment and disinfection. It whether this value is likely to be exceeded in practice.
provides an understanding of the applicability of existing models and the Direct toxicity assessment
likely effort required to produce improved models. Also assesses whether theproduction of such a model would be likely to provide a significant benefit.
UK Direct Toxicity Assessment (DTA) Demonstration
The Mechanism of Toxicity of Bromate and
Chlorate - An Interim Report
A series of reports (00/TX/02/01 to 07) that can be obtained
via www.ukwir.org for a total of £400.
Ref: 95/DW/05/6, ISBN 1 84057 049 0, 12pp, £30 Technical Guidance - Addressing Water Quality
Describes the intended research to further investigate the mechanism of Problems in Catchments where Acute Effluent
carcinogenity of bromate, and to compare the effects of chlorate and bromate Toxicity is an Issue
in two test species, rat and mouse. The studies considered suitable are thecomet assay, liquid peroxidation and supplementary in vitro studies.
Human Exposure to PAH from Sources other than
Ref: 00/TX/02/07, ISBN 1 84057 229 9, 84pp, £100 Drinking Water
Describes a sequence of seven steps recounting the identification of suitablesites for DTA investigation, the identification of discharges requiring toxicity reduction, approaches to toxicity reduction, and the monitoring of the Ref: 95/DW/05/5, ISBN 1 84057 048 2, 25pp, £20 effectiveness of these measures. A series of flow charts sets out the steps Examines contributions to total human exposure to PAHs from sources other involved and the key decision points while the accompanying text provides than drinking water, and compares them with the exposure from drinking supporting technical detail and worked examples where appropriate.
water. Concludes that exposure to PAHs is very variable, according to Recommendations from the Steering Group to the
lifestyle, diet, time of year and location. Makes it difficult to determine the Environmental Regulators
relative contribution which any particular source may make to total exposure.
Author: DTA Demonstration Programme Steering Group Maximum estimated intake of carcigenic PAHs
Ref: 00/TX/02/06, ISBN 1 84057 228 0, 32pp, £75 Brings together the experience gained from the wide ranging demonstrationprogramme designed to examine the practicalities of using whole effluent ecotoxicity tests to assess and control the quality of complex effluents released from industrial sources and sewage treatment works.
Review of Toxicity Reduction Evaluations at
Sewage Treatment Works

Contractor: WRc plcRef: 00/TX/02/05, ISBN 1 84057 226 4, 96pp, £75 Bromate from the Use of Chlorine in Water
The River Esk and Lower Tees Estuary DTA case studies involved toxicityreduction exercises being conducted at small and complex STW to provide Treatment
information for the development of good practice. It was also considered valuable to review the literature data on toxicity reduction exercises at Ref: 95/DW/05/4, ISBN 1 84057 047 4, 24pp, £200 Concludes that a change from the use of chlorine gas to hypochlorite solutions Lower Tees Estuary Project - Part II
will result in an increase in bromate concentration in treated water. The chlorine concentration of a stored hypochlorite solution decreases with time Ref: 00/TX/02/04, ISBN 1 84057 225 6, 98pp, £75 whereas the bromate concentration stays relatively constant.
Lower Tees Estuary Project - Part I
The Implications of Oestrogenic Substances in the
Ref: 00/TX/02/03, ISBN 1 84057 224 8, 100pp, £75 River Esk Project
Ref: 95/DW/05/3, ISBN 1 84057 046 6, 66pp, £100 Concludes that the data are sufficient to require that the subject be taken Ref: 00/TX/02/02, ISBN 1 84057 223 X, 138pp, £75 seriously, but insufficient to suggest that major changes in pollutionlegislation and control should be precipitated. Gives recommendations on River Aire Project
Contractor: Enviros AspinwallRef: 00/TX/02/01, ISBN 1 84057 219 1, 82pp, £75 Visit www.ukwir.org to purchase reports
Endocrine disrupters - waste waters & sludge
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Wastewater - A
Study of Treatment Options & Potential Costs

Endocrine Modulating Effects of Wastewater
Treatment Effluents
Ref: 02/TX/04/6, ISBN 1 84057 270 1, 52pp, £100 Presents information on processes for removing endocrine disrupting chemicals Ref: 04/TX/04/10, ISBN 1 84057 340 6, 100pp, £50 (EDCs) from wastewater treatment works effluents and to provide a Investigates the effects of exposure to wastewater treatment works effluent methodology to determine the cost of imposing new controls on these.
on sexual development in roach. Two life periods believed to be susceptible Treatment options identified included extended biological treatment, use of to sexual disruption (embryos/fry and adult-post-spawning roach) were activated carbon or the addition of a chemical oxidation stage. The study exposed to two works with differing chemical compositions for periods up identified significant gaps in information regarding process performance.
to 300 days. Both effluents were oestrogenic to roach inducing vitellogenin Costings showed that there would be substantial financial and environmental (an oestrogen dependent female protein) and the magnitude of the responses costs for society in achieving possible standards and that serious consideration paralleled the effluent content of steroid oestrogens. Exposure to the should be given to alternative abatement options.
effluents during early life induced permanent disruptions in gonad duct Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Wastewater - A
development (a feminisation of the duct in males) but there was no evidence Review of Occurrence and Removal
for alterations in the development of sex cells (no oocytes occurred in testisof male fish) for either life stage exposed. Exposure to effluent during early life induced alterations in kidney development that were persistent, but Ref: 02/TX/04/5, ISBN 1 84057 269 8, 98pp, £100 Reviews the current state of knowledge of the removal and degradation of Endocrine Disrupters in Sewage Influents -
endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in wastewater treatment works. The Analytical Method Development
steroid oestrogens (SOs) were identified as the most likely group of substancesfound in treated sewage effluent for which regulatory target values may be set.
Other EDCs could be controlled at source but this option is not available for Ref: 04/TX/04/9, ISBN 1 84057 339 2, 34pp, £10 SOs. The concentrations of SOs in effluent were reviewed and additional A performance tested analytical method has been developed to determine treatment may be needed where dilution is low.
the natural oestrogens, oestrone and 17-b-oestradiol and the synthetic Oestrogen Steroid Conjugates Stability in Waste
oestrogen ethinyl oestradiol in sewage influent. Samples were extracted Water Streams
after filtration to separate the liquid and solid phase. The liquid phase wasextracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) disks and the solid phase was extracted with methanol using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The Ref: 01/TX/04/4, ISBN 1 84057 254 X, 25pp, £500 extracts were purified using SPE cartridges. Analysis to determine free A laboratory simulation of the stability of steroid conjugates in sewage on steroid oestrogens was undertaken using liquid chromatography mass passage through a sewer and primary settlement within a sewage treatment spectrometry (LCMS) operated in the negative ion electrospray mode.
plant, using radiolabelled (3H) materials at environmentally realistic Endocrine Disrupters in Sewage Sludge: A
concentrations (100 ng l-1). Oestradiol-17-glucuronide de-conjugated rapidly Comparison of Analytical Methods
in the presence of a low concentration of sewage suggesting that this type ofconjugate would not remain intact during transfer to, and primary settlement within, a sewage treatment plant. Oestrone-3-sulphate was more robust, giving Ref: 04/TX/04/8, ISBN 1 84057 320 1, 24pp, £150 little indication of de-conjugation over the first 4 hours.
Determines the oestrogenicity of sewage sludge and soils and endocrine QSAR Studies on Fate and Behaviour of Steroid
disrupting compounds using a newly developed method. The results show Endocrines in Sewage Treatment
that free steroid oestrogens were detectable at low concentrations in sewagesludge. Oestrogenicity testing of sewage sludge using the ER-CALUX bioassay showed that sewage sludge is oestrogenic. However, aqueous Ref: 01/TX/04/3, ISBN 1 84057 253 1, 38pp, £250 leachates of the soil and most of the sludge samples (except primary and Literature data and quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) were activated sludge) gave no oestrogenic response. This suggests that used in TOXCHEM modelling to predict the behaviour of steroid endocrine oestrogenic compounds present in sludge may not leach into groundwater or disrupters in typical U.K. sewage treatment works. Models for two typical UK be bio-available when applied to land.
sewage treatment plant configurations predicted that volatilisation during Endocrine Disrupters in Sewage Sludge:
sewage treatment will be insignificant for all the oestrogens modelled resulting Analytical Method Development
in a significant proportion of residues in influent sewage appearing in effluentsdepending on the biodegradation efficiency.
Contractor: WRc plcRef: 03/TX/04/7, ISBN 1 84057 307 4, 32pp, £20 The Sorptive Behaviour of Steroid Oestrogens in
Sewage Treatment Plants

A performance tested analytical method has been developed to determinethe natural oestrogens, oestrone and 17-b-oestradiol and the synthetic oestrogen ethinyl oestradiol in sewage sludge and soil. Samples were Ref: 01/TX/04/2, ISBN 1 84057 231 0, 14pp, £500 extracted with methanol using accelerated solvent extraction. The extracts The ability of activated sludge particles to absorb steroid oestrogens was tested were purified using a simple clean-up procedure utilising C18 solid phase in the laboratory with fresh mixed liquor from an aeration tank and radio- extraction cartridges. Analysis to determine free steroid oestrogens was labelled steroid oestrogen analogues. Most of the sorption was completed in the undertaken using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry operated in the first minutes of the equilibrium. However, only ethinyloestradiol (EE2) was stable in the sewage matrix, the majority of oestradiol (E2) and oestriol (E3)were rapidly transformed.
Chemcial structure of oestrogen and testosterone
Statements contained in this UKWIR catalogue do not necessarily represent the views of UKWIR or the Water Industry UK Water Industry Research Limited, 1 Queen Anne's Gate, London SW1H 9BT, UK
tel: +44 (0) 20 7344 1807 fax: +44 (0) 20 7344 1859 email: mail@ukwir.org.uk, www.ukwir.org
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Source: http://www.ukwir.co.uk/files/UKWIR/UKWIRReportsCatalogues/Catalogue-toxicology-aug23.pdf


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